Wednesday, November 30, 2016

China’s Muslims urged to resist extremism

Top religious official tells conference of Islamic leaders to build faith with ‘Chinese characteristics’

South China Morning Post - Sunday, 27 November, 2016

Chinese Muslims should oppose religious extremism and not blindly follow foreign doctrine, said China’s top religious official according to state media reports.  Speaking at a national congress of Muslims that began on Saturday in Beijing, Wang Zuoan, chief of the State Administration for Religious Affairs, said Chinese Muslims should “firmly resist the penetration of religious extremism” and “always keep to the direction of developing Islam with Chinese characteristics”, said a report on the administration’s website.
Wang said Muslims’ beliefs and customs should be respected, but that religious interference in politics, justice or education was intolerable, Xinhua reported.  Addressing some 300 Muslim leaders at the congress, Wang said their followers should not simply follow the leadership of a foreign religion or treat foreign values as exemplary, China Daily reported.  China has an estimated 20 million Muslims. Many of them live in the northwestern provinces of Xinjiang, Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai.  China’s vast Muslim world has come under a media spotlight in recent years after a series of deadly attacks in Xinjiang, home to more than 10 million Uygurs.


Monday, November 28, 2016

A Special Issue: Muslims in China

ARAMCO WORLD: Arab and Islamic Cultures and Connections
July/August 1985 - Volume 36, Number 4
After China cracked down on religion during the Cultural Revolution, its Muslim minorities had to maintain a low profile, and relations with most Muslim nations cooled. In the early 1980’s, however, China again reached out to the world. Some Arab countries responded; during his visit to the United States in February, King Fahd said Saudi Arabia’s athletes would compete in the 1986 Asian and African Games in China, and countries like Oman, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates established economic and political ties. Meanwhile, unconfirmed reports from China suggested that Islam had survived, and was flourishing, so Aramco World asked permission to send in a team to observe and inter- view Chinese Muslims.
For nine months, it was uncertain what China would say, but finally, on July 8, 1984, Contributing Editor John Lawton, photographer Nik Wheeler — sacrificing an assignment at the Olympics — and Nevim Lawton, John’s Turkish speaking wife, translator and Girl-Friday, set off on a 5,250 kilometer trip within China (3,225 miles) — including one flight that brought them a third of the way back to Europe and a three day train trip across the Gobi Desert.
The team — possibly the first to ever tackle this subject since the Cultural Revolution — got total support from the All-China Journalists Association, the group that arranged their tour. Wheeler said he was perfectly free to shoot whatever he wanted, and the Lawtons were able to interview Turkic speaking Uighur and Kazakh Muslims without any official interference.
"Whatever the problems in the past," said Lawton, "Muslims — and reporters — now seem to have a measure of freedom."   — The Editors
1.     Muslims in China: An Introduction Written by John Lawton
2.     Muslims in China: The Country Written by John Lawton
3.     Muslims in China: The History Written by Paul Lunde
4.     Muslims in China: The Mosques Written by Jill S. Cowen
5.     Muslims in China: The People Written by John Lawton

The Druze in China

One of the puzzling stories Seabrook relates about the Druze is their belief, not only in reincarnation, but that Druze are instantly reborn, and those Druze who are not reborn in Jabal Druze are reborn in China. In The Druze (1988), Robert Brenton Betts points out that reincarnation is a universal belief among the Druze, and that, while modernist Druze deny it, there is a popular belief in a paradise of some sort in China. These beliefs are easier to understand in context. As early as the eighth century A.D., the Islamic empire had pushed to the borders of China. The famous general Qutaiba ibn Muslim even crossed into that other great empire. There's an interesting article on the history of Islam here, in a a special issue of Saudi Aramco World dedicated to Islam in China. So China has long been on the cognitive map of the Muslim world, but why would Druze reincarnate there? The Druze are an offshoot of Ismaili Shi'a Islam. Their religion holds in high regard al-Hakim bi'Amr Allah, the tenth to eleventh century Fatimid leader known in the west as "the mad Caliph." Among other things, he was the leader of the Shiites, and went so far, some say, as to claim he was a manifestation of the divine. At the age of 36, he went on a journey and disappeared. Many of his followers believed he had fled the earth because of its sinfulness, but would one day return -- an idea very similar to the idea of the Shiite's Hidden Imam, the occulted Imam who would come back at the end of time as the Mahdi. As I write this, Baghdad has banned all vehicles in order to protect Shiite pilgrims headed to Karbala to celebrate the birth of the Twelfth Imam. Some of Hakim's followers believed he fled to China. Betts quotes The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, a book by Claude Conder, the British explorer of Palestine, who claimed that there was a Druze tradition that "El Hakem would re-appear, leading an army from their Holy Land in China, to which the good Druze was carried by angels when he died."

G20 can restore old bridges between China and Turkey - Muhammet Hamza Ucar

Middle Kingdom Review Scholarly Analysis of China Across Time, Space and Discipline - October 24, 2016

Muhammet Hamza Ucar
Turkey, International Politics and Law student at Yenching Academy, Peking University and Istanbul University Political Science Faculty.

Turkey and China have some similarities in their cultures. The Chinese and Turkish peoples are similar with their Asian roots and support traditional family values that favor strong networking ties in their daily lives and careers.
Turkey is half-European and half-Asian, which impacts how its people conduct their lives. They have adapted to a modern lifestyle just like the Chinese have. Turkey is located in Western Asia, but still a part of Europe. Turkey’s political life can be so variable, since it’s close to the Middle East, while China is more stable.
The two nations have enjoyed long-held strong ties in history, while academic researchers have taken note of Chinese historical documents that show close relations with Turkey. Both nations cherish their patriotism, historical characters as ordinary people frequently ponder such matters on a daily basis.
The two societies – China and Turkey – consist of different ethnic groups living together, which differ from a number of European countries where minorities do not play substantial roles.
Turkish people believe a patriarchal culture is best for their family and social lives. They show terms of endearment to non-family members, whom they consider friends, by calling them an “uncle.” Turkey’s president is called an uncle or father for their nation.
China and Turkey endorse rational relations among different groups. Developing deeper relations between China and Turkey will likely proceed in stages. News agencies from both nations should introduce one society to another. There should also be stronger economic ties to benefit both countries.
By encouraging more sustainable and confidential relations, the two governments can coordinate on academic support as well.
There can be a bridge between the two societies, such as the New Silk Road initiative, which was proposed by China in 2013.  Ancient Turkish sultans, kings and rulers had allowed for a series of Caravans traders and merchants to travel to and from China.
At the moment, many Turkish people do not know much about the Chinese and vice versa. The media from both countries should play a more effective role to introduce one society to another. They can solve this problem by debunking cultural taboos and helping each society respect the other.
Both sides should hold more meetings between the leaders and governments. As former Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said in his speech a year ago, “Turkey needs to open a China Studies Institute and China needs a Turkey Study Institute to develop stronger bilateral academic relations.”
The media, academia and governments are responsible for better relations between the two countries. Soon, China will host the 11th G20 Summit in Hangzhou on September 4-5, which would spur new global economic growth. Hangzhou and Suzhou in east China are picturesque and impressive cities, known as, “Heaven on the Earth.” Leaders from 20 countries are expected to participate.
Turkey  takes part in China’s New Silk Road, Belt and Road initiative, which can develop stronger economic and cultural activities with countries in Asia, Europe and Africa. Meanwhile, Turkey’s different ethnic groups have roots with neighboring nations and could develop deeper economic ties with its border countries.
Turkey’s southern borders are connected to Arabic countries and close to the Mediterranean Sea, which offers key shipping ports for business. Turkey’s northeastern border stands next to Central Asia and the northwestern border is right next to the Aegean Sea and Greece, a gateway to Europe.
Turkey is the most stable country in the region – economically and politically. The Turkish economy policy is opening its doors to other countries. A company from Turkey can do business in Arabic countries, Europe and Central Asia. To make better relations with other countries, Beijing should encourage its youth to get more involved.
Beijing is calling for more suggestions from academics and young people on how to boost ties with other countries. China would likely push for more economic and social projects. Summits with China and Turkey could develop better bilateral relations. The 2016 G20 Summit as a global economic summit is expected to offer new economic and political opportunities.
Turkey can play a leading role in Central Asia with its historical roots, and China can invest abroad, especially in Central Asia. The two countries stand united in Central Asia, especially economically.
They can build the Belt and Road together, which can establish new bridges for China with other countries. Beijing is bearing more responsibilities in Asia, while some countries in the region do not enjoy much stability. China can afford the risk for greater long-term benefits.
Additionally, the “Chinese Dream” or “the great renewal of the Chinese nation” put forward by China’s President Xi Jinping creates a choice for other countries, which are not strong enough to resist powerful nations. Middle East countries perceive China as friendly with win-win policies.
China should hold a cooperative friendship with Turkey to open up the Middle East and Europe for better economic and strategic ties.  More scholars can make new bridges with China and Turkey.  There’s a Turkish proverb saying, “actions speak louder than words.” Well, China acts more rather than speaks.

Thursday, November 24, 2016

China’s Rise : Consequences for China and the World

China’s Rise :  Consequences for China and the World
A two-day conference organized by the Centre d’Études de l’Asie de l’Est of the Université de Montréal, la Chaire de recherche du Canada en droit chinois et mondialisation (UQAM), and the Department of Political Science of Concordia University, with additional financing from the Ministère des Relations Internationales et la Francophonie (Québec), will examine the consequences of China’s rise to great power status on China and the world. 
Day 1, Saturday, December 3.  Venue :  UQAM, room D-200; Time :  10 :00 – 17 :00
Morning session, 10 :00-12 :15.  Discussion of the impact of China’s rise on Chinese liberalism, by Carl Déry (Université de Montréal) and David Ownby (Université de Montréal)
Afternoon session, 14 :00-17 :00.  Timothy Cheek (University of British Columbia), « China’s Directed Public Sphere », Qin Hui (Tsinghua University) « Liberalism’s Decline? Socialism’s Decline? Or Freedom’s Decline ?», David Kelly, « The Seven Chinas ».
Day 2, Sunday, December 4.  Venue :  Concordia University, Hall 1220; Time 13 :00-17 :00.
Hélène Piquet (UQAM) and André Laliberté (Université d’Ottawa), « Perspectives on Legal Reforms and the future of Ngo’s in China; Qin Hui, « Reflections on the Post Cold-War World ».
For further information, please contact david.ownby (at)

Chinese investors raising $50m for Israeli technology

CreditEase Israel Innovation Fund also hosting delegation of leading CEOs and businesspeople from China this week

By Luke Tress

TIMES OF ISRAEL - November 23, 2016

CreditEase China, one of the world’s largest microcredit and wealth management firms, is raising a $50 million fund to invest in Israeli business and technology. The group has made Israel a priority in its investment strategy. It partnered with veteran investors in Israel Tayman Kan and Benjamin Weiss to establish the CreditEase Israel Innovation Fund (CEIIF) last year, to create its first Israel-focused venture-capital/private equity fund. The group’s previous fund aimed at Israel amounted to $32 million. CEIIF is hosting a delegation of 37 Chinese business executives in Israel this week.


China-Israel Relations: When the Gate Opens


The Jerusalem Post -  11/22/2016

Success of a business, in the face of competition, depends on maintaining a competitive edge that may be embodied in superior quality products or services, price advantage, and others. Maintaining a competitive edge is also the driver for success of entire economies. While in years past, a competitive edge was gained through control of and access to food production, supply of raw material, ready availability of shipping solutions, access to and control of energy sources or of capital; in the modern, knowledge-based economy it is intellectual property, which is embodied, among others, in technology and know-how, and which is a product of human intellectual activity and creativity, that provides the key competitive advantage. And indeed, intellectual property, which accounts for about 80% of the value of publicly-traded companies, is the biggest wealth generator of all times. Israel is a classical case study for the importance of these factors for economic development.


Wednesday, November 23, 2016

A New Book: China and Central Asia in the Post-Soviet Era A Bilateral Approach Muhamad S. Olimat

China and Central Asia in the Post-Soviet Era A Bilateral Approach

Muhamad S. Olimat

Rowman, 2015

This manuscript examines Sino-Middle Eastern relations on a bilateral level. It highlights the depth of China’s involvement in Central Asia with each country on a five dimensional approach: security cooperation, energy security, trade relations, political relations, and cultural relations. Regarding each of these criteria, Central Asia enjoys a strategic significance to China’s national security, vital interests, territorial integrity, sovereignty, regime survival, and economic prosperity. China has been an integral part of the political developments on the Central Asian political scene for over the past two millennia. Their bilateral ties grew steadily since the independence of Central Asian republics in 1992, culminating into strategic partnership two decades later. China and its partners in the region have embarked on the construction of the most ambitious gas pipelines network, joint ventures in oil upstreaming and downstreaming, mammoth highway and railroad projects, trade zones, construction projects, and above all, strategic security coordination in reference to unified and an integrated response to regional security threats. Both sides are also engaged in a process of revival of the Silk Road in terms of its cultural diversity and trade relations. Sino-Central Asian volume of trade reached $50 billion heading steadily toward $100 in the coming five years.

A New Book: China and the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries Strategic Partnership in a Changing World by Muhamad S. Olimat.

China and the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries Strategic Partnership in a Changing World

by Muhamad S. Olimat.

Rowman, 2016

This book examines China’s relations with member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council. It highlights the depth of China’s ties with the region bilaterally and multilaterally on a five-dimensional approach: political relations, trade relations, energy security, security cooperation, and cultural relations. Regarding each of these criteria, the GCC countries enjoy a strategic significance to China’s national security, vital interests, territorial integrity, sovereignty, regime survival, and economic prosperity. China has been an integral part of the political developments on the Arabian Gulf scene since the 1950s. Their bilateral ties have grown steadily since the Economic Reform Era, culminating in strategic partnership two decades later. China and its Arab Gulf partners have embarked on an ambitious economic cooperation that includes joint ventures in oil upstreaming and downstreaming, mammoth highway and railroad projects, construction projects, and above all, strategic security coordination in reference to security threats. Both sides are also engaged in a process of revival of the Silk Road within the Belt and the Road framework. Sino-Gulf bilateral trade relations reached $159,419.20 billion in 2014. The two sides aim to increase it to $600 billion by 2020, a goal within reach given the fact that they are concluding the China-GCC Free Trade Agreement, which will transform their bilateral ties.

Tuesday, November 22, 2016

Cao Jianming Meets with Turkish Attorney General Mohammed Akaka

TOP NEWS - November 22, 2016  
On the afternoon of November 21, the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, Cao Jianming, met with Mohammed Akkha, Attorney-General of the Supreme Court of Appeal of Turkey in Beijing.  Beijing, 21 Nov (Xinhua) - The Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, Cao Jianming, met here today with Mohammed Akkha, Attorney-General of the Turkish Supreme Court of Appeal.  He said that the friendly exchanges between China and Turkey have a long history.As early as 1,000 years ago, the ancient Silk Road put the people of the two countries in close contact with each other in the human Since the establishment of diplomatic ties in the early 1970s, the two countries have carried out extensive cooperation in the fields of politics, economy and trade, culture, education and law enforcement, and achieved fruitful results, especially in the promotion of bilateral relations in 2010. Since the two countries have maintained frequent high-level exchanges and maintained close communication and coordination in international and regional affairs, they have supported each other on issues of mutual concern, and political mutual trust has been further enhanced, while bilateral relations have been continuously enriched and improved. The two countries have also made in-depth exchanges in judicial and procuratorial areas, especially in the field of anti-terrorism and security cooperation, which has effectively safeguarded the stable development of the region, and will surely promote the exchange of judicial and law enforcement between the two countries. Pragmatic cooperation play a positive role in promoting.  The Chinese government is firmly opposed to all forms of terrorism and violent extremism, said Cao Jianming, vice-chairman of the National People's Congress (NPC), who said that the two countries are facing serious challenges to terrorism and crimes against humanity and social order. The two countries have reached important consensus on the cooperation in the field of security and counterterrorism and have made positive progress.Facing the increasingly complex and complicated international counter-terrorism situation, it is hoped that the law enforcement and judicial organs of the two countries can actively implement the important consensus reached by the two heads of state Deepen and strengthen law enforcement and judicial security cooperation to jointly combat various forms of terrorist crimes, effectively safeguard their national security and regional stability, and constantly enrich the content of China-Turkey strategic cooperative relations.  Mohammed Akaka thanked Attorney General Cao Jianming for his enthusiastic meeting with the Chinese procuratorial organs to enhance the joint efforts to crack down on terrorism and widen the area of judicial and judicial cooperation. He also tried to elevate the friendly relations between the procuratorial organs of the two countries to a new one. Higher level.  Turkish Ambassador to China Murat Ersoy attended the meeting.

China and Saudi Arabia: strengthening ties through education


DAILY SABAH - April 13, 2014 

Although ties between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and People's Republic of China started relatively late, today, the relationship between the two countries has developed beyond diplomatic, economic or political affairs.  Their ties have expanded further to different fields including culture and education. The bonds between Riyadh and Beijing in the fields of education and technology have developed rapidly and positively over the past few years.  Despite the fact that little has been documented on the number of students in both countries, it is believed that the number of students going to study overseas from Saudi Arabia to China, or vice versa, has been increasing recently. According to a report published in 2011, there were approximately 1,100 Saudi students enrolled in different universities in several cities across China, and the number is expected to increase this year. Meanwhile, the Chinese government is also encouraging their students to study at Saudi universities. It was reported that there are 270 Chinese students enrolled in a number of Suudi universities.


Monday, November 21, 2016

Yenching Academy Global Symposium

From: Hamza Ucar
Date: Tuesday, November 22, 2016 at 12:21 PM
To: Tugrul Keskin
Subject: Yenching Academy Global Symposium

Yenching Academy of Peking University Organise Global Symposium. This year will be the second.
Here the link for apply.
Thank you

For over a century, Peking University has been the foremost domestic academic setting for understanding China. In 2014, the University founded the Yenching Academy, with the hope of shaping a new generation of global citizens with a nuanced understanding of China and its role in the world..
The Academy’s flagship event, the Yenching Global Symposium, is already one of the most selective conferences held in China and quickly becoming one of the world's most competitive and highly anticipated conferences. The 2016 Symposium, with an acceptance rate of 3 percent, received more than 1800 applications from over 130 countries with representation from Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Fulbright Scholars and other major fellowships and leading institutions.
Hosted on the Peking University campus from March 23-26, 2017, the next symposium (“Xinnovation: Identity of Innovation in China") will be a four-day event consisting of multidisciplinary lectures, panel discussions, site visits, and interactive sessions on Chinese innovation. It will feature prominent Chinese and international scholars as well as leading professionals who will challenge and expand previously held conceptions about innovation in China. The Symposium will select and invite approximately 75 students and young professionals to participate in the event as delegates. It will cover all fees associated with the trip—including flights, ground transportation, meals, and accommodation.

2017 Applications are now live.  Please submit your completed application by midnight (Beijing Time),
December 15, 2016. 

Snubbing NATO, China says ready to consider Turkey in SCO

BEIJING: China is willing to consider any application from NATO-member Turkey to join a Russian and Chinese-led security bloc, China's Foreign Ministry said on Monday, after Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan said his country could join.  China, Russia and four Central Asian nations -- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan -- formed the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation in 2001 as a regional security bloc to fight threats posed by radical Islam and drug trafficking from neighbouring Afghanistan.  Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang said that Turkey is already a dialogue partner of the bloc and has for a long time closely cooperated with it, which China appreciates.  China attaches great importance to Turkey's wish to strengthen that cooperation, he told a daily news briefing. "We are willing, together with other members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and in accordance with the rules of its legal documents, to seriously study it on the basis of consensus consultation," Geng added, without elaborating.  Erdogan was quoted on Sunday saying that Turkey did not need to join the European Union "at all costs" and could instead become part of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.  Turkish membership of the bloc would be likely to alarm Western allies and fellow NATO members.  Having long been critical of Turkey's record on democratic freedoms, European leaders were alarmed by Erdogan's crackdown on opponents since a failed coup attempt in July, and Turkey's prospects of joining the EU look more remote than ever after 11 years of negotiations.  The EU is treading a fine line as it needs Turkey's help in curbing a huge flow of migrants, especially from Syria, while Ankara has grown increasingly exasperated by what it sees as Western condescension.  Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan speak Turkic languages, and Ankara signed up in 2013 as a "dialogue partner" saying it shared "the same destiny" as members of the bloc.  Mongolia, India, Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan are observers, while Belarus, like Turkey, is a dialogue partner.

Tired of EU's delaying tactics, Erdoğan points to Shanghai Pact


SABAH DAILY NEWS November 20, 2016

President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has said that it was time for Turkey to openly think about alternatives to the European Union, suggesting the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the economic, political and military organization that counts China, Russia and the central Asian republics among its members, as a perfectly plausible substitute.  While Pakistan and India are also currently in the process of becoming full members, Turkey is a dialogue partner.  Turkey has more options than tying its entire future to the EU, President Erdoğan said, speaking to journalists at the end of his official tour of Pakistan and Uzbekistan.  "I mentioned my desire for Turkey to become part of the SCO with [Russian President Vladimir] Putin and [Kazakhstan President Nulsultan] Nazarbayev. Iran also wants to get in. Putin said it was under consideration. I believe if Turkey became a member, its room for maneuver will broaden considerably," he stated.


How Is Turkish Trade With China Going?

Haluk Direskeneli

EURASIA NEWS - November 21, 2016

Mr. Wang Yi, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, came to Turkey early last the week. According to the protocol, he first met with Turkish Foreign Affairs Minister, then the Prime Minister and then he visited Presidential Palace for the congregation. Then in order to clarify the main objective of his official visit, then the Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi, he had a long meeting with the Turkish Minister of Energy and Natural Resources on November 14, 2016 in Ankara.
Commenting on the Chinese news agency website (, Chinese FM Wang Yi positively assessed the development of China-Turkey relations, saying that bilateral cooperation in economy and trade, security and combating terrorism are two important areas of bilateral relations. (We understand that there are serious concerns of the Chinese side on line-by-line interpretation, on security and terrorism).


China Turkey's 'friend in need': China foreign minister

In an exclusive interview, Wang Yi hails China's expression of 'immediate support' to Turkey in wake of defeated coup

By Fatih Hafiz Mehmet and Satuk Bugra Kutlugun 

ANATOLIAN NEWS AGENCY - 14.11.2016  China's Foreign Minister Wang Yi has stressed how
his country stepped up to demonstrate "immediate" support to Turkey after the failed July 15 coup bid.  Speaking to Anadolu Agency in an exclusive interview on Sunday in Ankara, paying an official visit, Wang said, "China immediately expressed support for the Turkish government’s efforts to uphold stability in accordance with the law and sent a vice foreign minister to visit Turkey”.  Asked about Turkey and China’s cooperation on security issues and the Fetullah Terrorist Organization's (FETO) activities in the country, Wang said, "Neither of us allows any activity on its soil that undermines the other's security and stability”.  He added, "China and Turkey have both suffered from terrorism; we are both firmly opposed to terrorism in all manifestations. Strengthening security and counter-terrorism cooperation serves the fundamental interests of our two countries”.  Wang added that since last year, the nation’s presidents, Xi Jinping and Recep Tayyip Erdogan, have met three times and reached important agreements on protecting national security and fighting terrorism.  Ahead of the G20 Summit in Hangzhou this September, Erdogan and Xi signed three bilateral agreements in the areas of energy, nuclear security, and agricultural health certification.  "There is zero tolerance for any organization or individual that engages in such activities," Wang said, adding that China's support for Turkey in the wake of the coup attempt "proves that China is a friend in need”.  Wang touts bilateral diplomatic ties  On the state of Turkish-Chinese relations, Wang touted the two countries' 45th year of diplomatic ties in 2016.  "Our relations have made an extraordinary journey in these 45 years and reached a stage of maturity and steady development. Most notably, our cooperation in the areas of politics, the economy, security, and culture has deepened and produced tangible results," said Wang, hailing the guidance of two countries' presidents.  "Turkey is a major country in the region, an influential Islamic nation, a key emerging market, and a member of the G20," said Wang. "It has an important place in China's Silk Road Economic Belt initiative”.  Wang also stressed the importance of China's Vice Premier Wang Yang's visit to Turkey last week for the first meeting of an inter-governmental cooperation committee.  "I am in Ankara to meet with Foreign Minister Cavusoglu," he said. "These two mechanisms were established pursuant to the important agreement reached between our presidents”.  The top diplomat added that having two-level high meetings in such quick succession "speaks to the strong commitment of both sides and the strength of Chinese-Turkish relations”.  Smaller Chinese tourist numbers 'temporary'  Asked whether China and Turkey could mutually ease travel visa requirements, Wang said China always welcomes its Turkish friends for tourism, business visits, and education.  "We would love to see Chinese citizens visit Turkey for sightseeing and investment," Wang said, adding that such visits would contribute to friendly exchanges and mutually beneficial cooperation between the two countries.  "Straddling the Eurasian continent, Turkey is a bridge between East and West. Turkey's long history, beautiful scenery, and rich heritage hold great appeal for Chinese tourists," Wang said.  The foreign minister said there have been Chinese TV documentaries on Turkey which are popular with viewers and help promote Turkish culture and tourism.  "Last year, the number of Chinese tourists visiting Turkey exceeded 310,000, up 57 percent from the year before," said Wang. "Recently, the number has come down somewhat due to perceived security [concerns] and other factors”.  But he added that he sees this decline in tourist numbers as "only temporary”.  "Turkey has unique tourism resources to offer, so the number will pick up and more Chinese tourists will come your way," he said.  Wang also said China is one of the "hottest destinations" for foreign direct investment (FDI) and has attracted more FDI than any other developing country for 23 years.  "We welcome, as always, foreign investments including those from Turkey, and we will continue to make it easier for Turkish and other foreign businesses to invest and seek opportunities in China," he added.  Chinese firms talking Edirne-Kars railway  Asked if China’s interest in high-speed railway construction in Turkey, Wang said at the moment, Chinese companies are negotiating with Turkish partners about the Edirne-Kars high-speed railway.  "It is expected to link the eastern and western parts of Turkey, and play a big part in connecting China's Silk Road Economic Belt initiative with Turkey's Middle Corridor initiative," Wang said.  The foreign minister cited China and Turkey's cooperation in high-speed railway building as "a prime example".  "Chinese enterprises were involved in phase II of the high-speed railway linking Ankara and Istanbul," Wang said. "It was applauded by the Turkish government and people of Turkey and demonstrated the strengths of Chinese construction”.  Wang mentioned that China operates over 1,900 bullet train units, the most in the world.  "The accumulated operational mileage has surpassed 2.77 billion kilometers, equivalent to six times the world’s circumference," Wang said. "On average 1 billion bullet train trips are made in China every year”.

Saturday, November 19, 2016

Now Accepting Applications! 2017 Asia Studies Fellowship at the East-West Center in Washington DC

This fellowship supports scholars and analysts who wish to undertake research and writing on topics of relevance to contemporary US-Asia policy; in particular, key challenges in U.S.-Asia relations and possible responses and approaches to addressing those challenges.
The fellowship finances residencies for a period of three months in Washington, D.C. at the East-West Center in Washington. Residency may begin as early as March 2017 and extend through September 2017.
Fellows will complete articles or a monograph and must give a seminar on their topic. The fellowship includes a monthly stipend, round trip economy airfare to Washington, D.C., and reimbursement of any applicable visa fees.
The application period for the 2017 Asia Studies Fellowship is NOW OPEN.
The deadline for applications is January 2, 2017.
For detailed information and how to APPLY, please click HERE to visit our Visiting Fellowships web page.
Contact Info: 
Grace Ruch Clegg
Projects and Outreach Coordinator, East-West Center in Washington
Contact Email: 

A New Book: China in the Middle East: The Wary Dragon

Alireza Nader and Andrew Scobell

RAND - 2016-11-30

This study examines China’s interests in the Middle East and assesses China’s economic, political, and security activities there to determine whether China has a strategy toward the region and what such a strategy means for the United States. The study focuses on China’s relations with two of its key partners in the Middle East: Saudi Arabia and Iran.

Friday, November 18, 2016

Donald Trump and Central Asia's 'Great Game'

How will Donald Trump’s election affect the balance of power in Central Asia?

By Ario Bimo Utomo

TE DIPLOMAT - November 16, 2016

The long-awaited U.S. presidential election has come to an end, with Donald Trump successfully pulling off an upset win. While the United States remains the most influential country on Earth, the results from November 8, 2016 will definitely bring some changes to the international constellation, including Central Asia.
Since their catapult to independence thanks to the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Central Asian states have shifted their role from a mere political backyard into new international entities. Their strategic geographic position as the fulcrum of Eurasia has also positioned them as the crossroads between East and West. Consequently, Central Asia is regarded as fertile soil for power contests between major political powers. Currently, there are three noticeable powers playing the so-called Great Game: the United States, Russia, and China. All three countries regard Central Asia as an important region.


Thursday, November 17, 2016

New China Grant at the U.S. Institute of Peace

From: "Chang, I-Wei Jennifer"
Date: Friday, November 18, 2016 at 12:16 AM
Subject: New China Grant at the U.S. Institute of Peace

We are issuing a call for grant proposals for our new China Grant on China’s Role in Peace and Conflict Dynamics. Our areas of focus include China’s role in the Middle East.  Could you please disseminate the China Grant info and link on your website and to the China, Islam, and Middle East mailing list?  That would be greatly appreciated.

USIP’s China grant is a new initiative starting in 2017 that explores China’s impact on conflict dynamics, particularly in Afghanistan, Iraq, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Sudan, and Syria. The China grant supports projects that promote education, training, dialogue, and capacity building for peacemakers in the United States, China, and third countries. These projects serve the purpose of enhancing U.S.-China understanding and cooperation on global conflict issues, developing strategies for managing differences, and helping ensure that China has a positive or mitigating impact on conflict dynamics around the world.

Priorities include:
  • Partnering with scholars and practitioners in China to share insights, best practices, and lessons learned in peacebuilding, peacekeeping, and peace diplomacy.
  • Working with Chinese companies, local civil society groups, and/or government stakeholders to promote conflict-sensitive business practices.
  • Helping key actors in the United States, China, and third countries develop the institutional, legal, and technical capacity to resolve conflicts without violence.
Priority will be given to projects based in or engaging actors in the above-listed countries, but organizations in any country with a strong history of relevant work may apply.
Subject to available funding, current plans for this solicitation are as follows:
  • Number of projects funded: 3-5
  • Grant range: $15,000 (minimum) to $50,000 (maximum)
To apply, please complete the concept note form in FLUXX by December 26, 2016. To begin, go to and click “New Registration.” Then, complete the form selecting “Grant” as the competition type and “Asia” as the center to which you are applying. Once the form has been submitted, you will be contacted by USIP with further instructions. USIP will contact finalists by January 6, 2017, to request more detailed proposals.
Shortlisted candidates will be invited to complete the second step of the process. This will entail preparing and submitting full grant applications on USIP’s application template that will be provided to all those invited to participate in this round. Final decisions regarding funding will be made by the United States Institute of Peace Board of Directors.
Please note that after review of all concept notes, only shortlisted applicants will be contacted and invited to submit full grant applications to USIP. We will not be able to provide status updates on submitted concept notes at any time.

All questions should be directed to

Best regards,


I-wei Jennifer Chang
Program Specialist, China Program
United States Institute of Peace
Making Peace Possible

Wednesday, November 16, 2016

Turkey and the Middle East: Past, Present and Future - November 26, 2016 - Center for Turkish Studies, Shanghai University

Iran, China sign agreement to boost defense-military cooperation

PRESS TV - Mon Nov 14, 2016

Iran and China have signed an agreement to boost defense-military cooperation and fight terrorism.  The agreement was inked by Iranian Defense Minister Brigadier General Hossein Dehqan and his Chinese counterpart General Chang Wanquan in Tehran on Monday at the end of an earlier meeting between the two sides. “The development of [Iran’s] long-term defense-military relations and cooperation with China is among the top priorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s defense diplomacy,” Dehqan said in the meeting.  He added that the two countries’ defense-military cooperation would guarantee regional and international peace and security.  He emphasized that all countries in Asia and the Oceania shoulder the responsibility to maintain peace and stability.      “Today, foreign meddling and lack of respect for the national sovereignty of countries have turned the Middle East region into a hotbed of crisis and insecurity in the world and led to [the emergence of] terrorism and its spread throughout the world,” Dehqan said.  He added that the US and some regional countries are supporting terrorism and the scourge is overflowing into Europe, Central Asia and the Caucasus as well as other regions.  “Today, the threat of Daesh and terrorism has turned into an important regional and international challenge,” the Iranian defense minister said.


China and Israel equals winning combination, Netanyahu tells trade delegation

By i24news - 11/02/2016

Israel hosts representatives from National Development and Reform Commission tasked with promoting commerce  Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on Wednesday met with representatives from China's National Development and Reform Commission, a macroeconomic management agency with broad administrative and planning control over the Chinese economy, to discuss ways to promote the trade between the two countries.  The meeting was part of the schedule of a three day summit that saw upward of 200 Chinese official and businessmen arrive to Israel for strategic dialogue with local businesses, entrepreneurs and officials.


Israel, China Launch Program To Bolster Economic Ties

by Deborah Danan

BREITBART - 8 Nov 2016

TEL AVIV – Israel’s Foreign Ministry announced a new NIS 3 million ($800,000) initiative to strengthen economic ties with China, Hebrew news site nrg reported on Sunday.  Israeli graduates of Far East and Chinese-language studies can enroll in a special program beginning in 2017 run jointly by the Foreign Ministry and China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC).  According to the Prime Minister’s Office Director-General Eli Groner, who is leading the China-Israel economic initiative, the program aims to train Israelis on how to deal with the Chinese market.  Groner told cabinet ministers on Sunday that although he is generally of the view that governments should refrain from meddling in the free market, the situation is different when it comes to China.


Shimon Peres wanted close relations with China

Henry Srebrnik


Israel’s former president Shimon Peres, who died last month at the age of 93, had a career in public service that spanned more than six decades. He held almost every senior post in Israeli politics.  The presidency, which he attained in 2007, allowed Peres to travel around the world, promoting Israel’s high-tech prowess and cultural reach.  “He had a very forward-looking belief in technology,” according to professor Yehudah Mirsky of Brandeis University in Waltham, Mass., and a former official of the U.S. State Department.  “He was always reading work on the cutting edge of things like nanotechnology, biotech and more.”  In his 1994 Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech, Peres had articulated his future-oriented vision. “Countries used to divide the world into their friends and foes,” he declared.  “No longer. The foes now are universal: poverty, famine, religious radicalization, desertification, drugs, proliferation of nuclear weapons, ecological devastation. They threaten all nations, just as science and information are the potential friends of all nations.”


Chinese FM meets Turkish president, PM on cooperation

Visiting Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi met with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Prime Minister Binali Yildirim in Ankara, capital of Turkey, on Monday.

Xinhua, November 15, 2016 

Erdogan said that Turkey attaches great importance to China-Turkey relations and is willing to maintain high-level exchanges to address issues concerning partnership through strategic cooperation.  "I'm pleased to see the consensus reached between Chinese President Xi Jinping and me in our previous meetings being effectively implemented," he said.  He also agreed to align China's Belt and Road Initiative with Turkey's "Middle Corridor" project, push ahead with major cooperation projects such as high speed railway construction and strengthen bilateral cooperation in fields such as tourism, culture and education.  The two countries need to deepen cooperation in security and anti-terrorism and support each other in efforts of safeguarding national sovereignty, security and stability, the president added.  In his meeting with Wang, Yildirim said that frequent high-level mutual visits have played a positive role in boosting bilateral relations between Turkey and China.


China Turkey's 'friend in need': China foreign minister

In an exclusive interview, Wang Yi hails China's expression of 'immediate support' to Turkey in wake of defeated coup

Anadolu News Agency - Nov 14, 2016

China's Foreign Minister Wang Yi has stressed how his country stepped up to demonstrate "immediate" support to Turkey after the failed July 15 coup bid.  Speaking to Anadolu Agency in an exclusive interview on Sunday in Ankara, paying an official visit, Wang said, "China immediately expressed support for the Turkish government’s efforts to uphold stability in accordance with the law and sent a vice foreign minister to visit Turkey”.  Asked about Turkey and China’s cooperation on security issues and the Fetullah Terrorist Organization's (FETO) activities in the country, Wang said, "Neither of us allows any activity on its soil that undermines the other's security and stability”.  He added, "China and Turkey have both suffered from terrorism; we are both firmly opposed to terrorism in all manifestations. Strengthening security and counter-terrorism cooperation serves the fundamental interests of our two countries”.  Wang added that since last year, the nation’s presidents, Xi Jinping and Recep Tayyip Erdogan, have met three times and reached important agreements on protecting national security and fighting terrorism.  Ahead of the G20 Summit in Hangzhou this September, Erdogan and Xi signed three bilateral agreements in the areas of energy, nuclear security, and agricultural health certification.  "There is zero tolerance for any organization or individual that engages in such activities," Wang said, adding that China's support for Turkey in the wake of the coup attempt "proves that China is a friend in need”.

READ MORE.......

Sino-Turkish ‘Solid Strategic Partnership’ China’s Dream or a Reality?

Sino-Turkish ‘Solid Strategic Partnership’ China’s Dream or a Reality?    

Mordechai Chaziza    
Department of Politics and Governance, Ashkelon Academic College  

China Report November 2016 vol. 52 no. 4 265-283 

Abstract  This article analyses the motivation behind China’s measures to formalise a solid strategic partnership with Turkey. One cannot ignore the inherent potential and impact on the region of a Chinese strategic partnership with Turkey and Beijing’s balancing efforts to contain US predominance in the Middle East. However, China’s bilateral relationship with Turkey is essentially limited, with narrow strategic manoeuvrability, which make the two countries unlikely to become solid strategic partners in the foreseeable future. Yet an improved strategy and more sophisticated diplomatic tactics by China could bring it closer to reality.


Tuesday, November 15, 2016

$300 million fund between China, UAE to invest in films, TV

By Leng Shumei

Global Times - 2016/11/14

China and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) extended their partnership into the film industry for the first time, as two media companies formed a $300 million fund to invest in movies and television programs produced in China, the UAE and Hollywood.  The China Intercontinental Communication Center (CICC) and Image Nation Abu Dhabi on Sunday signed an agreement in Abu Dhabi, the UAE, to establish a film fund worth $300 million, the Xinhua News Agency reported.  The partnership is comprised of three core initiatives and the first initiative, a weekly factual entertainment series titled USILK, will be launched to air in January 2017, according to a press release sent to the Global Times by the CICC on Monday.  Image Nation aims "to build the foundations of a film and television industry" in the UAE, Michael Garin, chief executive of Image Nation, according to the release. Garin said that the agreement with CICC would also promote an "exchange of talent" between China, the UAE and Hollywood.  The agreement builds on a recent $10 billion strategic investment fund launched by China and the UAE last year and is the first extension of that relationship into the media industry, read the release.  China and the UAE agreed in December 2015 to set up a major investment cooperation fund worth $10 billion, Xinhua reported.  Deng Li, director of the Foreign Ministry's Department of West Asian and North African Affairs, was quoted by Xinhua as saying that the fund would be invested in China, the UAE and third-party markets.  The CICC project came amid rocketing Chinese investment in Hollywood in recent years, including property and entertainment giant Dalian Wanda Group's acquisition of leading Hollywood film producer Legendary Entertainment earlier this year and its previous purchase of AMC Theaters in 2012.  CICC Vice President Jing Shuiqing was quoted in the release as saying that China and the Arab countries have fostered great friendship through the ancient Silk Road and the Belt and Road initiative proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013, and have brought new opportunities for collaboration between China and the United Arab Emirates.  In September in a letter to Congress, about 16 US lawmakers raised concerns about Chinese investment in the US entertainment and media industries, calling for an expansion of the government process to review foreign investments in the country, The New York Times reported.

Iran, China Sign Military Cooperation Agreement

Iran and China are reportedly slated to hold joint military drills in the near future.

By Franz-Stefan Gady

THE DIPLOMAT - November 15, 2016

Iranian Defense Minister Hossein Dehgan and his Chinese counterpart, Chang Wanquan, signed an agreement on November 14 pledging closer military cooperation in a number of areas including military training and counterterrorism operations. Both sides also pledged to hold joint military exercises in the near future.
The Chinese defense minister arrived in Tehran on Sunday for a three-day visit. Chang Wanquan expressed confidence that Iran-China defense ties will be strengthened in the years ahead.
“The upgrading of relations and long-term defense-military cooperation with China is one of the main priorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s defense diplomacy (…)” Iran’s defense minister said, according to the Tehran Times. “We assess the visit of the Chinese defense minister in line with this (Iran’s defense diplomacy,” he added.


China and Saudi Arabia's Burgeoning Defense Ties

Tensions in the U.S.-Saudi alliance have China poised to expand its defense ties with Riyadh.

By Samuel Ramani

THE DIPLOMAT - November 16, 2016

On November 7, 2016, Saudi Arabia’s ruling monarch King Salman bin Abdulaziz met with Meng Jianzhu, a special envoy of Chinese President Xi Jinping, in Riyadh. After a series of talk between Chinese officials and senior members of the Saudi royal family, the Saudi government unveiled a five-year plan for Saudi Arabia-China security cooperation during Meng’s visit. This plan would include counterterrorism cooperation and joint military drills, cementing Saudi Arabia’s status as a vital Chinese ally in the Middle East.
Even though China has emerged as Saudi Arabia’s leading economic partner in recent years, the transition toward a full-fledged defensive partnership is a new, largely unforeseen development. In contrast to the multibillion dollar annual arms contracts binding Saudi Arabia to the United States, China only sold $700 million in arms to Riyadh from 2008-2011. Low levels of Riyadh-Beijing security cooperation were attributed to China’s long-standing friendship with Iran, disagreements over Bashar al-Assad’s future in Syria and long-standing Chinese disdain for Saudi Arabia’s sponsorship of Islamist networks.


Defense coop. with China Iran's priority

MEHR NEWS AGENCY - Mon 14 November 2016
Iran’s Defense Minister Brigadier General Hossein Dehghan said the development of long-term defense-military relations and cooperation with China is considered as Iran's top priority in defense diplomacy.  Dehghan officially welcomed Chinese Minister of Defense Chang Wanquan on Monday and discussed international and regional issues with his Chinese counterpart .  Pointing to Chinese President Xi Jinping's visit to Tehran in late January, Dehghan said presidents of Iran and China agreed to expand defense-military cooperation and to fight against terrorism within the framework of comprehensive cooperation.  He underlined that Iran gives top priority to promoting long-term defense-military relations and cooperation with China.  Describing Iran-China defense-military cooperation as a guarantee for international and regional peace and security, Dehghan said maintaining peace and stability in Asia-Pacific region is responsibility of all countries in the region.  Today, he added, the region has turned into the epicenter of the crisis and insecurity in the world due to foreign interference and lack of respect for national sovereignty. It has led to the spread of terrorism around the world, he underlined.  Chang Wanquan, for his part, expressed satisfaction with his visit to Iran, saying Iran is a great country with an ancient civilization and a distinguished position in political, security, military, economic and cultural fields.  Iran and China enjoy shared interests and mutual understanding on various regional and global issues to completely pave the way for the development of defense-military cooperation between the two countries.  Chinese defense minister referring to Dehghan's trip to China on 2014, highly regarded Iran-China's relations and underlined the need for the expansion and deepening of defense cooperation with the implementation of military agreements signed between the two countries.  Iran and China also signed an agreement on Monday to hold joint military drills and to cooperate in fighting terrorism, seeking to "create a collective movement to confront this threat."  In addition to the joint military training exercises, Iran and China of terrorism.  The two nations have upgraded their military ties in recent years, with each country's naval ships visiting the other's ports.

Iran, China sign defense cooperation deal

TEHRAN TIMES -  November 14, 2016
“The upgrading of relations and long-term defense-military cooperation with China is one of the main priorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s defense diplomacy…” Iranian Defense Minister Hossein Dehqan said at a meeting with visiting Chinese counterpart General Change Wanquan.  Wenquan arrived in Tehran on Sunday for a three-day visit. “We assess the visit of the Chinese defense minister in line with this (Iran’s defense diplomacy,” Brigadier General Dehqan added.  The agreement envisions, inter alia, counterterrorism efforts and exchange of experiences in personnel training between the two militaries.  No more details were available.  Closer military cooperation between Iran and China is advantageous to regional and international peace, the Iranian commander stressed.  “Maintaining peace and stability in Asia and Oceania is a collective responsibility of all countries in the region.”   Also, in the meeting, the Chinese defense minister appeared confident of stronger defense ties with Iran, citing common regional and international interests.  He also underscored the importance of a full implementation of defense agreements as the way forward, expressing hope for a new chapter in defense cooperation. The visit comes two years after Dehqan paid an official visit to Beijing, where the two commanders exchanged ideas on defense ties. Defense cooperation between the two countries dates back to nearly three decades ago.  Since the 1980’s, Beijing has been a key partner in supplying Tehran with advanced military hardware, including tactical ballistic and anti-ship cruise missiles.  There were also rumors last year regarding the interest shown by Iran in purchasing 150 Chengdu J-10 fighters from China for a contract value of $1 billion, though the deal was not finalized.  Also, the Iranian Armed Forces Chief of Staff Major General Mohammad Hossein Baqeri has shown interest in staging joint military drills with China in a separate meeting with visiting Wanquan. “Iran is prepared to expand and deepen defense and military cooperation between the two countries and stage joint military war games,” Baqeri was quoted as saying.  Iran’s growing international defense ties, called “defense diplomacy”, comes after the country clinched a historic agreement on its nuclear program with great powers including China. China and Iran have shown determination to strengthen all-encompassing relations particularly after the nuclear deal reached in July 2015.  During the last year’s January visit to Tehran by Chinese President Xi Jinping, a record number of 17 documents were inked.  As the defense ministers were signing the deal, the RIA news agency reported that Iran and Russia are in talks over an arms deal worth around $10 billion under which Moscow delivers T-90 tanks, artillery systems, planes and helicopters to Tehran.  This is while Russian Ambassador to Iran Levan Dzhagaryan had seen military deals with Tehran limited by the UN Resolution 2231.

China, Iran pledge to deepen military exchange

Xinhua, November 16, 2016

Chinese Defense Minister Chang Wanquan on Monday held talks with Iranian Defense Minister Hossein Dehqan in Tehran.Chang said the development of bilateral relations between China and Iran is not only positive for mutual interest of Chinese and Iranian peoples, but also positive for world peace and stability.  Witnessing increased mutual visits and personnel training cooperation between the armed forces in recent years, Chang said he is confident that the friendly relations between the two countries as well as the armed forces will be further reinforced.  Dehqan hailed Chang's remarks, voicing the hope that further military exchange and cooperation between Iran and China will continue to play a positive role in safeguarding regional peace and world stability.  Chang arrived in Tehran on Sunday for a three-day visit at the invitation of Dehqan.


Monday, November 14, 2016

Sun Yat-sen, The Three Principles of the People (1929)

Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) was the leading intellectual figure in the western-influenced nationalist movement which had overthrown the Manchu dynasty in China in 1911. The lecture from which this extract is taken was given in 1924.
The population of the world today is approximately a billion and a half. One fourth of this number live in China, which means that one out of every four persons in the world is a Chinese. The total population of the white races of Europe also amounts to four hundred millions. The white division of mankind, which is now the most flourishing, includes four races: in central and northern Europe, the Teutons, who have founded many states, the largest of which is Germany, others being Austria, Sweden, Norway, Holland, and Denmark; in eastern Europe, the Slavs, who also have founded a number of states, the largest being Russia, and, after the European war, the new countries of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia; in western Europe, the Saxons or Anglo-Saxons, who have founded two large states England and the United States of America; in southern Europe, the Latins, who have founded several states, the largest being France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and who have migrated to South America forming states there just as the Anglo-Saxons migrated to North America and built up Canada and the United States. The white peoples of Europe, now numbering only four hundred million persons, are divided into four great stocks which have estab-lished many states. Because the national spirit of the white race was highly developed, when they had filled up the European continent they expanded to North and South America in the Western Hemisphere and to Africa and Australia in the southern and eastern parts of the Eastern Hemisphere.
From San Min Chit I (The Three Principles of the People), by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, tr. F.W. Price, Shanghai, 1929, pp. 77-100.
The Anglo-Saxons at present occupy more space on the globe than any other race. Although this race originated in Europe, the only European soil it holds are the British Isles—England, Scotland and Ireland—which occupy about the same position in the Atlantic that Japan occupies in the Pacific. The Anglo-Saxons have extended their territory westward to North America, eastward to Australia and New Zealand, and south-ward to Africa until they possess more land and are wealthier and stronger than any other race. Before the European war the Teutons and the Slavs were the strongest races; moreover, by reason of the sagacity and ability of the Teutonic peoples, Ger-many was able to unite more than twenty small states into a great German confederation. At the beginning an agricultural nation, it developed into an industrial nation and through industrial prosperity its army and navy became exceedingly powerful.
Before the European war all the European nations had been poisoned by imperialism. What is imperialism? It is the policy of aggression upon other countries by means of political force, or, in the Chinese phrase, "long-range aggression." As all the peoples of Europe were imbued with this policy, wars were continually breaking out; almost every decade had at least one small war and each century one big war. The greatest of all was the recent European war, which may be called the World War because it finally involved the whole world and pulled every nation and people into its vortex. The causes of the European war were, first, the rivalry between the Saxon and Teutonic races for control of the sea. Germany in her rise to greatness had developed her navy until she was the second sea power in the world; Great Britain wanted her own navy to rule the seas 59 she tried to destroy Germany, whose sea power was next to hers. From this struggle for first place on the sea came the war.
A second cause was each nation's struggle for more territory. In eastern Europe there is a weak state called Turkey. For the past hundred years the people of the world have called it the "sick man of Europe." Because the government was unenlight-ened and the sultan was despotic, it became extremely helpless and the European nations wanted to partition it. Because the Turkish question had not been solved for a century and every nation of Europe was trying to solve it, war resulted. The first cause of the European war, then, was the struggle between white races for supremacy; the second cause was the effort to solve critical world problems. If Germany had won the war, she would have held the supreme power on the sea after the war and Great Britain would have lost all her territory, breaking into pieces like the old Roman Empire. But the result of the war was defeat for Germany and the failure of her imperialistic designs.
The recent European war was the most dreadful war in the history of the world. Forty to fifty million men were under arms for a period of four years, and near the end of the war they still could not be divided into conquerors and vanquished. One side in the war was called the Entente; the other side, the Allied Powers. The Allied Powers* at first included Germany and Austria; Turkey and Bulgaria later joined them. The Entente Powers** at first were Serbia, France, Russia, England, and Ja-pan; Italy and the United States joined afterwards. The United States' entry into the war was due entirely to racial considera-tions. During the first two years of the war Germany and Austria were in the ascendancy. Paris and the English Channel were almost captured by the German and Austrian armies. The Teu-tons thought that Great Britain was certainly done for, and the British themselves were thoroughly alarmed. Seeing that the American people are of the same race as they, the British used the plea of race relationship to stir up the people of the United States. When America realized that England, of her own race, was in danger of being destroyed by Germany, of an alien race, inevitably "the creature sorrowed for its kind" and America threw in her lot with England to defend the existence of the Anglo-Saxons. Moreover, fearing that her own strength would be insufficient, America tried with all her might to arouse all the neutral countries of the world to join in the war to defeat Germany.
During the war there was a great phrase, used by President Wilson and warmly received everywhere "self-determination of peoples." Because Germany was striving by military force to crush the peoples of the European Entente, Wilson proposed destroying Germany's power and giving autonomy henceforth to the weaker and smaller peoples. His idea met a world wel-come, and although the common people of India still opposed Great Britain, their destroyer, yet many small peoples, when they heard Wilson say that the war was for the freedom of the weak and small peoples, gladly gave aid to Great Britain. Al-though Annam had been subjugated by France and the common people hated the French tyranny, yet during the war they still helped France to fight, also because they had heard of Wilson's just proposition. And the reason why other small peoples of Europe, such as Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania, all en-listed on the side of the Entente against the Allied Powers was because of the self-determination principle enunciated by Presi-dent Wilson. China, too, under the inspiration of the United States, entered the war; although she sent no armies, yet she did contribute hundreds of thousands of laborers to dig trenches and to work behind the lines. As a result of the noble theme pro-pounded by the Entente all the oppressed peoples of Europe and of Asia finally joined together to help them in their struggle against the Allied Powers. At the same time, Wilson proposed, to guard the future peace of the world, fourteen points, of which the most important was that each people should have the right of self-determination. When victory and defeat still hung in the balance, England and France heartily endorsed these points, but when victory was won and the Peace Conference was opened, England, France, and Italy realized that Wilson's proposal of freedom for nations conflicted too seriously with the interests of imperialism; and so, during the conference, they used all kinds of methods to explain away Wilson's principles. The result was a peace treaty with most unjust terms; the weaker, smaller na-tions not only did not secure self-determination and freedom but found themselves under an oppression more terrible than before. This shows that the strong states and the powerful races have already forced possession of the globe and that the rights and privileges of other states and nations are monopolized by them. Hoping to make themselves forever secure in their exclusive position and to prevent the smaller and weaker peoples from again reviving, they sing praises to cosmopolitanism, saying that nationalism is too narrow; really their espousal of international-ism is but imperialism and aggression in another guise.
But Wilson's proposals, once set forth, could not be recalled; each one of the weaker, smaller nations who had helped the Entente to defeat the Allied Powers and had hoped to attain freedom as a fruit of the victory was doomed to bitter disappoint-ment by the results of the Peace Conference. Then Annam, Burma, Java, India, the Malay Archipelago, Turkey, Persia, Af-ghanistan, Egypt, and the scores of weak nations in Europe were stirred with a great, new consciousness; they saw how com-pletely they had been deceived by the Great Powers' advocacy of self-determination and began independently and separately to carry out the principle of the "self-determination of peoples." Many years of fierce warfare had not been able to destroy imperialism because this was a conflict of imperialisms between states, not a struggle between savagery and civilization or be-tween Might and Right. So the effect of the war was merely the overthrow of one imperialism by another imperialism; what sur-vived was still imperialism. But from the war there was uncon-sciously born in the heart of mankind a great hope the Russian Revolution. The Russian Revolution had begun much earlier, as far back as 1905, but had not accomplished its purpose. Now during the European war the efforts of the revolutionists were crowned with success. The reason for the outbreak of revolution again at this time was the great awakening of the people as a result of their war experience. Russia sent over ten million soldiers into the field—not a puny force. Without Russia's part in the war, the Entente's line on the western front would long before have been smashed by Germany; because Russia was embarrassing the Germans on the eastern front, the Entente Powers were able to break even with Germany for two or three years and finally turn defeat into victory. Just halfway through the war, Russia began to reflect, and she realized that in helping the Entente to fight Germany she was merely helping several brute forces to fight one brute force and that no good results would come of it in the end. A group of soldiers and citizens awoke, broke away from the Entente, and concluded a separate peace with Germany.
As far as their legitimate national interests were concerned, the German and the Russian people had absolutely no cause for quarrel; but when it came to imperialistic designs, they vied with each other in aggressions until conflict was inevitable. Moreover, Germany went so far beyond bounds that Russia, in self-protec-tion, could not but move in accord with England, France, and the others. Later, when the Russian people awoke and saw that imperialism was wrong, they started a revolution within their own country, first overthrowing their own imperialism; at the same time, to avoid foreign embarrassments, they made peace with Germany. Before long, the Entente also signed a peace with Germany and then all sent soldiers to fight Russia. Why? Be-cause the Russian people had awakened to the fact that their daily sufferings were due to imperialism and that to get rid of their sufferings they must eliminate imperialism and embrace self-determination. Every other nation opposed this policy and so mobilized to fight Russia, yet Russia's proposal and Wilson's . were undesignedly similar; both declared that the weaker, smaller nations had the right of self-determination and freedom. When Russia proclaimed this principle, the weaker, smaller peo-ples of the world gave their eager support to it and all together began to seek self-determination. The calamitous war through which Europe had passed brought, of course, no great imperialis-tic gain, but, because of the Russian Revolution, a great hope was born in the heart of mankind.
Of the billion and a half people in the world, the most powerful are the four hundred million whites on the European and Ameri-can continents; from this base the white races have started out to swallow up other races. The American red aborigines are gone, the African blacks will soon be exterminated, the brown race of India is in the process of dissolution, the yellow races of Asia are now being subjected to the white man's oppression and may, before long, be wiped out.
But the one hundred fifty million Russians, when their revolu-tion succeeded, broke with the other white races and condemned the white man's imperialistic behavior; now they are thinking of throwing in their lot with the weaker, smaller peoples of Asia in a struggle against the tyrannical races. So only two hundred fifty million of tyrannical races are left, but they are still trying by inhuman methods and military force to subjugate the other twelve hundred fifty million. So hereafter mankind will be di-vided into two camps: on one side will be the twelve hundred fifty million; on the other side, the two hundred fifty million. Although the latter group are in the minority, yet they hold the most powerful positions on the globe and their political and economic strength is immense. With these two forces they are out to exploit the weaker and smaller races. If the political arm of navies and armies is not strong enough, they bear down with economic pressure. If their economic arm is at times weak, they intervene with political force of navies and armies. The way their political power cooperates with their economic power is like the way in which the left arm helps the right arm; with their two arms they have crushed most terribly the twelve hundred fifty million. But "Heaven does not always follow man's desires." The Slavic race of one hundred fifty million suddenly rose up and struck a blow at imperialism and capitalism, warring for mankind against inequality. In my last lecture I told of the Russian who said, "The reason why the Powers have so defamed Lenin is because he dared to assert that the twelve hundred fifty million majority in the world were being oppressed by the two hundred fifty million minority." Lenin not only said this, but also ad-vocated self-determination for the oppressed peoples and launched a campaign for them against injustice. The powers attacked Lenin because they wanted to destroy a prophet and a seer of mankind and obtain security for themselves. But the people of the world now have their eyes opened and know that the rumors created by the powers are false; they will not let themselves be deceived again. The political thinking of the peo-ples of the world has been enlightened to this extent.
Now we want to revive China's lost nationalism and use the strength of our four hundred million to fight for mankind against injustice; this is our divine mission. The powers are afraid that we will have such thoughts and are setting forth a specious doctrine. They are now advocating cosmopolitanism to inflame us, declaring that, as the civilization of the world advances and as mankind's vision enlarges, nationalism becomes too narrow, unsuited to the present age, and hence that we should espouse cosmopolitanism. In recent years some of China's youths, de-votees of the new culture, have been opposing nationalism, led astray by this doctrine. But it is not a doctrine which wronged races should talk about. We, the wronged races, must first recover our position of national freedom and equality before we are fit to discuss cosmopolitanism. The illustration I used in my last lecture of the coolie who won first prize in the lottery has already made this very clear. The lottery ticket represents cos-mopolitanism; the bamboo pole, nationalism. The coolie, on win-ning first prize, immediately threw away his pole* just as we, fooled by the promises of cosmopolitanism, have discarded our nationalism. We must understand that cosmopolitanism grows out of nationalism; if we want to extend cosmopolitanism we must first establish strongly our own nationalism. If nationalism cannot become strong, cosmopolitanism certainly cannot pros-per. Thus we see that cosmopolitanism is hidden inside the bam-boo pole; if we discard nationalism and go and talk cosmopolitanism we are just like the coolie who threw his bam-boo pole into the sea. We put the cart before the horse. I said before that our position is not equal to that of the Annamese or the Koreans; they are subject peoples and slaves while we cannot even be called slaves. Yet we discourse about cosmopolitanism and say that we do not need nationalism. Gentlemen, is this reasonable?
According to history, our four hundred million Chinese have also come down the road of imperialism. Our forefathers con-stantly employed political force to encroach upon weaker and smaller nations; but economic force in those days was not a serious thing, so we were not guilty of economic oppression of other peoples. Then compare China's culture with Europe's an-cient culture. The Golden Age of European culture was in the time of Greece and Rome, yet Rome at the height of its power was contemporaneous with as late a dynasty in China as the Han. At that time China's political thinking was very profound; many orators were earnestly opposing imperialism and much anti-imperialistic literature was produced, the most famous be-ing "Discussions on Abandoning the Pearl Cliffs." Such writings opposed China's efforts to expand her territory and her struggle over land with the southern barbarians, which shows that as early as the Han dynasty China already discouraged war against outsiders and had developed the peace idea to broad proportions.