Monday, May 18, 2020

Full text: Speech by President Xi Jinping at opening of 73rd World Health Assembly

Fighting COVID-19 Through Solidarity and Cooperation
 Building a Global Community of Health for All

Statement by H.E. Xi Jinping
President of the People’s Republic of China
At Virtual Event of Opening of the 73rd World Health Assembly

Beijing, 18 May 2020

President of the World Health Assembly,
Director General of the World Health Organization,
Dear Delegates,

To begin with, I wish to say that it is of significant importance for this World Health Assembly to be held at such a critical moment as the human race battles this novel coronavirus.

What we are facing is the most serious global public health emergency since the end of World War II. Catching the world by surprise, COVID-19 has hit over 210 countries and regions, affected more than seven billion people around the world and claimed over 300,000 precious lives. I mourn for every life lost and express condolences to the bereaved families.

The history of human civilization is one of fighting diseases and tiding over disasters. The virus does not respect borders. Nor is race or nationality relevant in the face of the disease. Confronted by the ravages of COVID-19, the international community has not flinched. The people of all countries have tackled the virus head on. Around the world, people have looked out for each other and pulled together as one. With love and compassion, we have forged extraordinary synergy in the fight against COVID-19.

In China, after making painstaking efforts and enormous sacrifice, we have turned the tide on the virus and protected the life and health of our people. All along, we have acted with openness, transparency and responsibility. We have provided information to WHO and relevant countries in a most timely fashion. We have released the genome sequence at the earliest possible time. We have shared control and treatment experience with the world without reservation. We have done everything in our power to support and assist countries in need.

Mr. President,

Even as we meet, the virus is still raging, and more must be done to bring it under control. To this end, I want to make the following proposals:

First, we must do everything we can for COVID-19 control and treatment. This is a most urgent task. We must always put the people first, for nothing in the world is more precious than people’s lives. We need to deploy medical expertise and critical supplies to places where they are needed the most. We need to take strong steps in such key areas as prevention, quarantine, detection, treatment and tracing. We need to move as fast as we can to curb the global spread of the virus and do our best to stem cross-border transmission. We need to step up information sharing, exchange experience and best practice, and pursue international cooperation on testing methods, clinical treatment, and vaccine and medicine research and development. We also need to continue supporting global research by scientists on the source and transmission routes of the virus.

Second, the World Health Organization should lead the global response. Under the leadership of Dr. Tedros, WHO has made a major contribution in leading and advancing the global response to COVID-19. Its good work is applauded by the international community. At this crucial juncture, to support WHO is to support international cooperation and the battle for saving lives as well. China calls on the international community to increase political and financial support for WHO so as to mobilize resources worldwide to defeat the virus.

Third, we must provide greater support for Africa. Developing countries, African countries in particular, have weaker public health systems. Helping them build capacity must be our top priority in COVID-19 response. The world needs to provide more material, technological and personnel support for African countries. China has sent a tremendous amount of medical supplies and assistance to over 50 African countries and the African Union. Five Chinese medical expert teams have also been sent to the African continent. In total, in the past seven decades, over 200 million people in Africa have received care and treatment from Chinese medical teams. At present, 46 resident Chinese medical teams are in Africa helping with COVID-19 containment efforts locally.

Fourth, we must strengthen global governance in the area of public health. We human beings will eventually prevail over the coronavirus. Yet this may not be the last time a major health emergency comes knocking at our door. In view of the weaknesses and deficiencies exposed by COVID-19, we need to improve the governance system for public health security. We need to respond more quickly to public health emergencies and establish global and regional reserve centers of anti-epidemic supplies. China supports the idea of a comprehensive review of the global response to COVID-19 after it is brought under control to sum up experience and address deficiencies. This work should be based on science and professionalism, led by WHO and conducted in an objective and impartial manner.

Fifth, we must restore economic and social development. While working on an ongoing basis to contain the virus, countries where conditions permit may reopen businesses and schools in an orderly fashion in observance of WHO’s professional recommendations. In the meantime, international macroeconomic policy coordination should be stepped up and the global industrial and supply chains be kept stable and unclogged if we are to restore growth to the world economy.

Sixth, we must strengthen international cooperation. Mankind is a community with a shared future. Solidarity and cooperation is our most powerful weapon for defeating the virus. This is the key lesson the world has learned from fighting HIV/AIDS, Ebola, avian influenza, influenza A (H1N1) and other major epidemics. And solidarity and cooperation is a sure way through which we, the people of the world, can defeat this novel coronavirus.

Mr. President,

China stands for the vision of building a community with a shared future for mankind. China takes it as its responsibility to ensure not just the life and health of its own citizens, but also global public health. For the sake of boosting international cooperation against COVID-19, I would like to announce the following:

— China will provide US$2 billion over two years to help with COVID-19 response and with economic and social development in affected countries, especially developing countries.

— China will work with the UN to set up a global humanitarian response depot and hub in China, ensure the operation of anti-epidemic supply chains and foster “green corridors” for fast-track transportation and customs clearance.    

— China will establish a cooperation mechanism for its hospitals to pair up with 30 African hospitals and accelerate the building of the Africa CDC headquarters to help the continent ramp up its disease preparedness and control capacity.

— COVID-19 vaccine development and deployment in China, when available, will be made a global public good. This will be China’s contribution to ensuring vaccine accessibility and affordability in developing countries.

— China will work with other
G20 members to implement the Debt Service Suspension Initiative for the poorest countries. China is also ready to work with the international community to bolster support for the hardest-hit countries under the greatest strain of debt service, so that they could tide over the current difficulties.

To conclude, I call on all of us to come together and work as one. Let’s make concerted efforts to protect the life and health of people in all countries. Let’s work together to safeguard planet Earth, our common home. Let’s work together to build a global community of health for all!

I thank you.

People's Daily, China: The annual #TwoSessions, the NPC and CPPCC meetings, will kick off this week

People's Daily, China
The annual #TwoSessions, the NPC and CPPCC meetings, will kick off this week. Under #COVID19, how will this year different from previous years? Let’s take a look 

#TwoSessions under #COVID19: Body temperature checks, masks, and nucleic acid tests are the new must-do for delegates
After a delay of more than two months due to the epidemic/pandemic, the National People’s Congress, the top legislature, is set to open its annual session on May 22 while the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the top political advisory body, will hold its annual session starting on May 21. Under #COVID19, this year’s delegates have underwent special procedures and must-do requirements.
Every year, delegates from across China gather in Beijing for the meetings. While security inspection has always been a must-do at the hotels where they reside, this year, they must also have their temperature checked among other things under the epidemic prevention measures.
Leading officials of China’s cabinet departments are usually required to sit in on the meetings during the country’s annual national legislative and political advisory sessions as non-voting participants. However, this year, amid measures aimed at preventing COVID-19 spread, they will teleconference.
Conference rooms will be regularly disinfected so that things like seats and microphones are clean. Assigned drivers are also required to wear masks to prevent any potential virus outbreak.
At restaurants, each table is equipped with only a single chair to prevent gathering. At the same time, disposable gloves, thermometer guns, masks, zipper storage bags, and other protective gear are available, Beijing Youth Daily reported.
Cai Qi, Party chief of Beijing, pointed out that the Two Sessions this year will be held under the special background of epidemic prevention and control, therefore health-monitoring measures will be tightened and related emergency response plans have been improved. (By Dai Xiaoyu)

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Chinaphobia by Tugrul Keskin


Recently, we have seen many news and articles on this subject published by North American, Australian and European newspapers and journals. To me, this is based on fear-mongering, rather than any real concerns about China's growing influence in world politics. These 'news items' remind me of Islamophobia, Antisemitism (before the Nazis came to the power) and anti-immigration attitudes prevalent in the US, Europe and Australia. I call this new trend Chinaphobia. In the last few months, many articles have been published on subjects related with the Uyghurs, Hui and Tibet in China, concerning human rights. I agree with some of these articles but disagree with most of them; however, I believe this fear mongering is not about real academic concerns, or human rights but are instead tied more directly with security and policy-oriented scholarship, and most importantly, racism.

On the other hand, I do not argue that China is a perfect place on earth concerning human rights, democracy, openness, and so on. However, China is a developing country, changing rapidly from a rural populated society to one with an urbanized social structure. Modernization is taking place; people's everyday lives are changing from Shandong to Xian. We need to look at these changes, and tie them to the underlying social, political and economic transformation in the country. Do you think there is a perfect democracy in Europe, when we see a proliferation of right wing and anti-immigration movements? Do you think there are absolute human rights in the US in the context of the Black Struggle, and the experience of American Indians and other minorities? Do you think Australia loves Indians, Chinese, Muslims and Middle Easterners or the aborigines? We have a saying in Turkish, that before you criticize or assume the intentions of others, you need to take a look at the mirror!

Of course, China is trying to influence the foreign and domestic politics of other countries, but so is the US, Germany, Iran, Turkey, Russia, and every other country. Nothing is new here. This is the reality of international relations and comparative politics. If you would like to understand the soft power approach, we should review the Fulbright scholarship or the British Council in Turkey, right? Is China doing anything very different from these examples of soft power political influence in academia? We should answer this question objectively.

Every country in the world has certain social, political and economic problems, obstacles and challenges, like China, Turkey, US or Germany. We, scholars and academicians should study these issues without prejudice or any political agenda. This short piece is a good presentation of prejudice with political agenda within academia. Racism is still alive.      

Any thoughts or feedback are very welcome.

Best, salaam and peace to all,
Tugrul Keskin
Shanghai University

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

News on China 2020/05/13

1.Traditional Chinese medicine helps fight COVID-19 around the globe with eastern wisdom
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has won more and more recognition around the world for its important role in treating the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In many countries across the globe, including the U.S., Laos, Iran and South Korea, TCM has been helping with the global fight against the pandemic in various ways.It is widely believed that bringing into play the strengths of TCM, treating COVID-19 patients through a combination of TCM and Western medicine, has been a highlight of Chinas experience in fighting the virus.

2.CPAFFC president: Chinas people-to-people diplomacy contributes to global COVID-19 control
China’s people-to-people diplomacy has made huge contributions to global COVID-19 control and will help the world better understand China, said Lin Songtian, president of the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (CPAFFC).

3.Djibouti awards Chinese medics with Independence Day Medal for coronavirus assistance
Djibouti's Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed honored a group of Chinese doctors and nurses with the country's highest honor on Sunday in recognition of their role in helping local medics fight the coronavirus.

4. U.S. CDC had "very good interactions" with China at scientific level, says health official
Robert Redfield, director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), said on Tuesday that his agency "had very good interactions" with its Chinese counterpart at the scientific level after the COVID-19 outbreak in China.
5.Some U.S. politicians irresponsible in scapegoating China over their own incompetence
It is quite clear that the seriousness of the epidemic situation in the U.S. is the result of poor governance from some officials. It is dishonest and irresponsible for some U.S. politicians to pass the buck to China.

6.U.S. death toll "almost certainly" higher than reported, says Fauci
Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said on Tuesday many experts believe more people in the United States have died from COVID-19 than those who have been reported.

7.World left in shock over US sabotage of global cooperation against COVID-19
The US now has the largest number of confirmed cases and fatalities of COVID-19 in the world, and is the current epicenter of the pandemic. Its reluctance to promote global cooperation to tackle the lethal virus has made it a less credible and consistent partner for the international community. Experts and officials around the world have criticized the nation’s egoism amid a global pandemic, condemning its failure to protect its own people, as well as its hindering of joint global efforts to stop the virus’ spread.

8.Trump Death Clock counts preventable US coronavirus deaths
A newly erected billboard in New York's Times Square shows the number of US coronavirus deaths that its creator says could have been avoided if President Donald Trump had acted sooner - and it's called the "Trump Death Clock."

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Our Home Xinjiang - Evimiz Xinjiang -- AN CHUNK UK 纪录片《我到新疆去》

Evimiz Xinjiang -- 01 Li QiuPing 纪录片《我到新疆去》

Evimiz Xinjiang -- 02 AN CHUNK UK 纪录片《我到新疆去》

Evimiz Xinjiang --03 HUANG ZHENFEI

Evimiz Xinjiang -- 04 ZHOU Lina 纪录片《我到新疆去》

Magnificent China - Görkemli Çin 盛世中华

Thursday, May 7, 2020

News on China 2020/05/07

1. Chinese mainland ranks first in COVID-19 performance index: survey
Chinese mainland citizens were largely satisfied with their own government's COVID-19 crisis response, while citizens in Western countries felt their governments did poorly, according to the findings of a global survey released on Wednesday.

2. Country backs WHO probe into virus origin
The Foreign Ministry said on Wednesday that China stands ready to continue close cooperation with the World Health Organization to find the origin of the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, but it firmly opposes any political manipulation under the guise of an investigation of its origin.

3. China rolls out practical measures to guarantee employment
The Chinese central government and local governments have taken frequent, prompt and practical measures to stabilize and guarantee employment in order to overcome the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak.

4. Mobilization to aid Wuhan during time of outbreak called crucial
China has unique institutional advantages when it comes to social mobilization, said Jiao Yahui, an official with the National Health Commission. Such advantages ensured the government could send more than 42,000 medical workers from all over the country to Wuhan and turn public hospitals in the city into designated hospitals for COVID-19 in the shortest time to solve the pressing problem of medical resource shortages, Jiao said

5. China to join WHO global initiative against pandemic
The initiative was announced last month to accelerate the development, production, and equitable distribution of vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics for COVID-19.

6. Exclusive: U.S. drafts rule to allow Huawei and U.S. firms to work together on 5G standards – sources
The U.S. Department of Commerce is close to signing off on a new rule that would allow U.S. companies to work with China’s Huawei Technologies on setting standards for next generation 5G networks, people familiar with the matter said.
7. US experts refute lab theory
Experts from the World Health Organization and the United States, including intelligence analysts, have contested some US politicians' claims that the novel coronavirus originated in a Chinese research laboratory.

8. Ousted vaccine director files whistleblower complaint alleging coronavirus warnings were ignored
Dr. Rick Bright, the ousted director of the office involved in developing a coronavirus vaccine, formally filed an extensive whistleblower complaint Tuesday alleging his early warnings about the coronavirus were ignored and that his caution at a treatment favored by President Donald Trump led to his removal.
9. Yale epidemiologist says U.S. response to coronavirus "close to genocide by default"

10. Politicizing coronavirus waste of time in pandemic battle
As the novel coronavirus rages on worldwide, politicizing the outbreak won't eliminate the virus. Instead, this global fight demands collaboration.

11. U.S. politicians reveal their cold-bloodedness in pandemic response
Viruses are common enemies of human beings and the COVID-19 pandemic poses common challenges for all countries. It is a humane and just act for countries to do their best to help others in the pandemic while maintaining strict prevention and control policies at home.

12. Political goals hid under U.S. speculations on China’s COVID-19 statistics
China has always taken people’s lives as the top priority in the sudden outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia, trying its best to improve the cure rate and lower mortality to save the life of every patient. Many Chinese lost their lives due to the major pandemic, which placed the nation into deep lament.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

News on China 2020/05/06

1.Holiday economy rebounds in China
Travelers made 115m trips, spent $6.74b during May Day holiday. China on Tuesday marked a milestone in its efforts to recover from the coronavirus pandemic, as over 100 million tourists flocked to popular attraction sites across the country during the just-concluded May Day holiday and spent billions of dollars, all while averting a much-feared resurgence of COVID-19 cases.

2.Chinese medical teams contribute to the medical relief work in Africa
Chinese medical teams have made significant contributions to the epidemic prevention and control work in Africa, as many medical personnels have fought on the frontlines in efforts to help contain the spread of the coronavirus in the region.

3.Chinese ambassador: Ignoring the facts to blame China will only make things worse

4. China launches manned spacecraft prototype with new Long March 5B rocket
China successfully launched a prototype of its next-generation manned spacecraft – without astronauts – along with a new version of its heavy-lift Long March 5 rocket on Tuesday.

5.Coronavirus quickly spread around the world starting late last year, new genetic analysis shows
A new genetic analysis of the virus that causes Covid-19 taken from more than 7,600 patients around the world shows it has been circulating in people since late last year, and must have spread extremely quickly after the first infection.

6.Trump officials try to enlist foreign allies in pressure campaign against China over coronavirus response
With the general election just six months away, and the global economy in shambles because of the coronavirus, there is increasing urgency inside the White House and among President Donald Trump's Republican allies to blame China over its failure to stem the spread of the disease early on.

7.US Belleville NJ mayor believes he had COVID-19 in November: US media
The mayor of Belleville, New Jersey, Michael Melham has tested positive for coronavirus antibodies, and believes he contracted COVID-19 in November — more than two months before the U.S. first reported cases of the new disease in Washington State, US media reported on April 30.

Monday, April 13, 2020

China and the Middle East/Africa Online Course - ShanghaiUniversity

Spring 2020
Tuesday - 17:00 -19:000 and Sunday 18:30 – 20:00 (Shanghai Time Zone)

Instructor: Tugrul Keskin                                     
Office Hours: Tuesday 1:00 – 4:00 PM or by appointment  
E-mail:  or WeChat: tugrulkeskin Cell: 86+15000-465734

China will never seek hegemony or expansion – no matter what stage of development it reaches.
China’s socialist democracy best for Chinese people’s interests, no need to copy the political system of other countries. 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China - Xi Jinping

Course Description and Objective:
This course will review and analyze the increased presence of PRC in the Contemporary Middle East and Africa. After the Deng Xiaoping came to power, he liberalized the Chinese state and economy. As a result of his economic policies, the PRC opened its doors to foreign investment and international companies. This trend created a “great transformation in Chinese society.”  Over the next forty years, the Chinese middle class grew to a size of over three hundred fifty million people. David Harvey calls this process “neoliberalism with Chinese characteristics.” However, this economic transformation and the emergence of a large middle class in China created additional energy needs for the state and society. This led to a shift in Chinese foreign policy towards the Middle East. Therefore, over the last few years China, as an emerging global power, has heavily invested in the economies of Middle Eastern countries. However, there are other competitors in the Middle Eastern and African economic market; such as the United States and Europe. Although the Middle East and Africa are considered an American backyard, China is currently trying to enter the Middle Eastern and African market for its own energy and security needs. However, unlike in Africa, China has moved slowly in order not to disturb American National Interests. China is consequently sneaking into the Middle Eastern oil market without too much attention to this trend. In this class, we will review how the growing needs for oil and gas of the Chinese economy has shaped Chinese foreign policy in the Middle East after 1978.

The course objectives are 1) to acquaint students with both traditional and contemporary literature and research on Chinese Foreign Policy toward Middle East and Africa and 2) to introduce students to the historical and ideological basis of Classical and Contemporary Chinese and Middle East/Africa relations

Required Readings:
This course will use sections from the following books and articles:
·       Michael Beckley. China's Century? Why America's Edge Will Endure - MIT. International Security, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Winter 2011/12), pp. 41–78.
·       Tugrul Keskin and Christian Braun. When a Sleeping Giant Wakes – A Neoclassical Realist Analysis of China’s Expanding Ties in the Middle East. Sociology of Islam 4 (2016) 1-26.
·       Xi Jinping. Secure a Decisive Victory in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects and Strive for the Great Success of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era Delivered at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China October 18, 2017.

Recommended Readings:
Other Books:
  • Jon B. Alterman and John W. Garver. The Vital Triangle: China, The United States and the Middle East. CSIS, 2008.
  • Scott Harold and Alireza Nader. China and Iran E conomic, Political, and Military Relations. RAND, 2012.
  • James Chen. The Emergence of China in the Middle East. Strategic Forum National Defense University, 2011: SF No. 271 1.
  • Kemp, Geoffrey. The East Moves West: India, China and Asia’s Growing Presence in the Middle East. Washington: Brookings, 2012.
  • Simpfendorfer, Ben. The New Silk Road: How a Rising Arab World is Turning Away from the West and Rediscovering China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
  • MacFarquhar R. The Politics of China: The Eras of Mao and Deng. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1997.
 Recommended Articles:
·      YORAM EVRON. Israel’s Response to China’s Rise A Dependent State’s Dilemma. Asian Survey, Vol. 56, Number 2, pp. 392–414. ISSN 0004-4687, electronic ISSN 1533-838X. © 2016.
·      Yiyi Chen. China’s Relationship with Israel, Opportunities and Challenges: Perspectives from China. Israel Studies, volume 17 number 3.
·      Aron Shai. China and Israel Relations and Future Prospects. ASPJ Africa & Francophonie - 2nd Quarter 2014.
·      Sino-Turkish Strategic Economic Relationship in New Era by Zhiqiang Zou.
·      “Turkey Dream” and the China-Turkish Cooperation under “One Belt and One Road” Initiative by ZAN Tao.
·  Altay Atli. Turkey’s Foreign Policy Toward China: Analysis and Recommendations for Improvement. Global Relations Forum Young Academics Program Policy Paper Series No.3. 
·       Antonov, Ivan. "China's Growing Role In International Affairs." International Affairs: A Russian Journal Of World Politics, Diplomacy & International Relations 57.4 (2011): 27-31.
·       Jin Liangxiang. Energy First China and the Middle East. Middle East Quarterly Spring 2005, pp. 3-10.
·       Huiyun, Tang. "China's Soft Power Construction Policy." Journal Of US-China Public Administration 9.5 (2012): 563-569.
·       Pantucci, Raffaello, and Alexandros Petersen. "China's Inadvertent Empire." National Interest 122 (2012): 30-39.
·       Rozman, Gilbert. "Invocations Of Chinese Traditions In International Relations." Journal Of Chinese Political Science 17.2 (2012): 111-124.
·       Xiao, Ren, and Gordon Cheung. "Sources And Transitions Of Chinese Foreign Policy: An Introduction." East Asia: An International Quarterly 28.3 (2011): 169-174.
·       Demır, İdris. "Revival Of The Silk Road In Terms Of Energy Trade." University Of Gaziantep Journal Of Social Sciences 9.3 (2010): 513-532.
·       Gee, John. "China's Challenges In The Middle East." Washington Report On Middle East Affairs 30.8 (2011): 30-31.
·       Menon, Raja. "The East Moves West, India, China, And Asia's Growing Presence In The Middle East." Maritime Affairs: Journal Of The National Maritime Foundation Of India 7.1 (2011): 121-128.
·       Peerenboom, Randall. "China And The Revolutions In The Middle East And North Africa." Middle Eastern Law & Governance 3.1/2 (2011): 192-203.
·       Pham, J. Peter. "China's “Surge” In The Middle East And Its Implications For U.S. Interests." American Foreign Policy Interests 31.3 (2009): 177-193.
·       Zambelis, Chris, and Brandon Gentry. "China Through Arab Eyes: American Influence In The Middle East." Parameters: U.S. Army War College 38.1 (2008): 60-72.
·       Harris, Stuart. "Global And Regional Orders And The Changing Geopolitics Of Energy." Australian Journal Of International Affairs 64.2 (2010): 166-185.
·       Hayoun, Massoud. "Strange Bedfellows." World Affairs 175.5 (2013): 89-96.
·       Olimat, Muhamad. "The Political Economy Of The Sino-Middle Eastern Relations." Journal Of Chinese Political Science 15.3 (2010): 307-335.
·       Gvosdev, Nikolas. "Don't Count China Out In Middle East." World Politics Review (2012): 1.
·       Gardels, Nathan. "It's Time For China To Start Shaping The New Global System." NPQ: New Perspectives Quarterly 28.3 (2011): 2-5.
·       Hulbert, Matthew. "Shifting Global Balance Heralds New Energy Imperatives." Middle East 438 (2012): 32-36.
  • (M. Dorraj & C. Currie) Editors, China’s Energy Relations with the Developing World (London and New York: Continuum publishers, 2011).
  • (M. Dorraj & C. Currier) “Lubricated With Oil: Iran-China Relations in a Changing World.”, Middle East Policy. Vol. 15, No. 2, (Summer, 2008):  66-80.
  • (M. Dorraj & C. Currier) “Recasting the Silk Road in a New Era: China’s Expanding Influence in the Middle East” In Emilian Kavalski editor, China and the Global Politics of Regionalization (New York and London: Ashgate Publishers, 2009):165-176.
  • (M. Dorraj & C. Currier) “In Arms We Trust: Strategic and Economic Factors Motivating China-Iran Relations.  The Chinese Journal of Political Science. Vol. 15, No. 1, (Spring, 2010): 49-69.
  • (M. Dorraj & C. Currier) China’s Quest for Energy Security in the Middle East: Strategic Implications” In C. Currier & M. Dorraj editors, China’s Energy Relations with the Developing World (London and New York: Continuum Publishers, , 2011): 65-82.
  • (C. Currier & M. Dorraj) “The Strategic Implications of China’s Energy Engagement With the Developing World” In C. Currier & M. Dorraj, editors, China’s Energy Relations With the Developing World (London and New York: Continuum Publishers, , 2011): 3-16.
  • (M. Dorraj & J. English) “China’s Strategy for Energy Acquisition in the Middle East: Potential for Conflict and Cooperation with the United States” Asian Politics and Policy Volume 14, Number 1. (April, 2012): 173-191.
  • (M. Dorraj & J. English) “The Dragon Nests: China’s Energy Engagement of the Middle East” China Report, Volume 49, Number 43, (June, 2013): 43-67. 
  • (M. Dorraj & J. English) “Iran- China Relations and the Changing Political Map” In Thomas Juneau and Sam Razavi editors, Iran’s Foreign Policy Since 2001: Alone in the World (London & New York: Routledge, 2013): 179-195.
  • “Iran’s Expanding Relations with China and Their Strategic Dimensions” The Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research, Occasional Papers, Number 112, (Fall, 2013): 1-52. (With simultaneous publication of Arabic Translation).
  • (M. Dorraj & C. Currier) China: La Busqueda De La Seguridad  Energetica En El Mundo En  Desarrollo “China’s Search for Energy Security in the Developing World” (in Spanish) in Alejandro Chanona Editor, Confrontando Modelos de Sequridad Energetica (Mexico City:  National Autonomous University of Mexico, 2013): 143- 162.
  • “Implications for Asia- Pacific/GCC Energy Relations” in Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research (ECSSR), Unconventional Fuels: The Next Hydrocarbon Revolution? (Abu Dhabi: ECSSR, Spring, 2015): 239-272.
  • “The Future of Sino-Iran Relations” in Niv Horesh Editor, Toward Well-Oiled Relations? China’s Presence in the Middle East Following the Arab Spring. (London and New York: MacMillan Publishers, 2015): 193-203.
·       Yitzhak Shichor, Co-Editor with Jonathan Goldstein, China and Israel from Discord to Concord (Jerusalem: The Magnes Press, 2016), 306p., in Hebrew.
·      Yitzhak Shichor. Ethno-Diplomacy: the Uyghur Hitch in Sino-Turkish Relations, Policy Studies No. 53 (Washington: East West Center, 2009). Translated into Chinese as Minzu waijiao: zhongtu guanxi zhongde weiwuer zhang'ai, and reprinted in:
·      Yitzhak Shichor. China and the Palestine Liberation Organization: Ups and Downs, Policy          Publication No. 42 (Jerusalem: The Leonard Davis Institute for International Relations, the Hebrew University, 1991), in Hebrew.
·      Yitzhak Shichor. A Multiple Hit: China’s Missiles Sale to Saudi Arabia, SCPS Papers, No. 5 (Kaohsiung: Sun Yat-sen Center for Policy Studies, National Sun Yat-sen University, 1991).
·      Yitzhak Shichor. East Wind Over Arabia: Origins and Implications of the Sino-Saudi Missile Deal, China Research Monographs No. 35 (Center for Chinese Studies, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1989).
·      Yitzhak Shichor. Small Cracks in the Great Wall: The Prospects of Sino-Israeli Relations, Research Report No. 5 (London: Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1987). 
·      Yitzhak Shichor.The Middle East in China’s Foreign Policy 1949-1977 (London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979). Reprinted 1981, digitally printed version, 2008.
·      Degang Sun & Yahia H. Zoubir. China's Economic Diplomacy towards the Arab Countries: challenges ahead? Journal of Contemporary China, 2015 Vol. 24, No. 95, 903–921,
·      YAO Kuangyi1. China-Arab States Cooperation Forum in the Last Decade. Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) Vol. 8, No. 4, 2014.
·      Guy Burton. Explaining Beijing’s Shift from Active to Passive Engagement in Relation to the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Sociology of Islam 4 (2016) 93-112.
·      China in the Eyes of the Saudi Media Mohammed Turki Al-Sudairi Gulf Research Center GULF PAPERS February 2013.
·      Degang Sun a & Yahia Zoubir. China's Response to the Revolts in the Arab World: A Case of Pragmatic Diplomacy. Mediterranean Politics, 2013.
·      John W. Garver. China and Iran: An Emerging Partnership Post- Sanctions. MEI Policy Focus 2016-3.
·      Mohiaddin Mesbahi and Mohammad Homayounvash. China and the International Non-Proliferation Regime: The Case of Iran. Sociology of Islam 4 (2016) 73-92.
·      China and Iran: Economic, political, and Military relations
Scott Harold and Alireza Nader. RAND, 2012.

·      “The Role of China’s Policy Banks in its Energy Acquisition Strategy in the Developing Nations” Wong Center for the Study of Multinational Corporations, Shanghai, China, January 23, 2105.
·      “China Looks to Deepen Relations with West Asia” Wong Center for the Study of Multinational Corporations, Shanghai, China, March 20, 2105.
·      “The Return of the Middle East to its Asian Home:  Expanding Middle East- Asia Nexus and its Ramifications” Part1. Wong Center for the Study of Multinational Corporations, Shanghai, China, July 20, 2105.
·      “China’s Evolving Policy Toward the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict”  China Policy Institute, University of Nottingham, UK, March 25, 2015. Blogs.Nottingham.AC.UK.
·      “Future of China-Iran-Europe Energy and Trade After the Nuclear Deal”
China.Org.CN. Thursday, September 10, 2015.
·      China in Middle East: Shifting Role and Interests By PAN Guang.
·      Sean Foley. Seek Knowledge Even If It Takes You to China (Via Washington) Saudi Arabia and China in the Twenty-First Century. Sociology of Islam 4 (2016) 166-188.
·      Geoffrey F. Gresh. The Gulf Looks East Sino-Arab Relations in an Age of Instability. Sociology of Islam 4 (2016) 149-165.
·      Manochehr Dorraj and James English. The Dragon Nests: China’s Energy Engagement of the Middle East. CHINA REPORT 49: 1 (2013): 43–67.

Newspaper Articles:
  • Davis, Rowenna. "China Is Now Challenging The U.S. In The Middle East.." CCPA Monitor 16.3 (2009): 10-11.
  • Ford, Peter. "Libya unrest tests China's interests in the Middle East." Christian Science Monitor 02 Mar. 2011: N.PAG.
  • Spegele, Brian, and Matt Bradley. "Egypt's Morsi Firms Up Ties to China." Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition 29 Aug. 2012:
  • Topol, Sarah A., and Peter Ford. "Q&A: Why China has become the Middle East's favorite customer." Christian Science Monitor 13 July 2010: N.PAG.
  • Ian Bremmer. China's fast-growing Middle East problem. The Economist. Tuesday, March 13, 2012
  • Brian Spegele And Jeremy Page. China to Shake Up Foreign-Policy Leadership. The Wall Street Journal. March 10, 2013.  
·       Willy Lam. Meet China’s New Foreign-Policy Team Is Beijing using its latest appointments to send a message to Washington? Foreign Policy. March 8, 2013.
·       China's Foreign Policy:
·       Tania Branigan. China's foreign policy is playing catch-up with its new status.     The Guardian, Thursday 22 March 2012.
·       Council On Foreign Relations:    

Documentaries and Movies:   
·       Full Video: Xi Jinping addresses the China-Arab States Cooperation Forum
·       China's Role in the Middle East: Pan Guang
·       Western Approaches: Responses to China from the Middle East and Central Asia.
·       Roberts: USA vs China in the Middle East
·       China's role in the Middle East
·       Journeys Into Islamic China - Huda Documentary
·       China and the Middle East: Rising Power and a Region in Turmoil
·       The Heat discusses China-Middle East relations
·      China-Arab Forum: How is China facing a multi-polar Arab world?

Recommended Websites and Embassies:
·       Principles of China's Foreign Policy
· Chinese Embassy in Turkey
· Chinese Embassy in Egypt
· Chinese Embassy in Iran
· Chinese Embassy in Saudi Arabia
· Chinese Embassy in Qatar
· Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Republic of South Africa
· Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Federal Republic of Nigeria
· Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Republic of Zimbabwe
· Embassy of The People's Republic of China In The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Course Philosophy:
The goal of this course is to enable students to write a theoretically guided and empirically rooted research paper. I expect you to become familiar with the social, political and economic underpinnings of transformations in the Modern China and the Middle East and Africa.

The success of this course depends on your continued and sustained reading and participation. The course will be based on a four-dimensional method of learning, and this includes inquiry and critical thinking; communication; the diversity of human experience; and ethics and social responsibility. First, I would like you to critically analyze what you learn in this class or have learned so far through the media and education, because in today’s world, truth is a relative concept. Throughout human history, critical thinking is the one of the most important factors that has contributed to human development.  In order to become active, self-motivated, empowered learners and future leaders, you will need to have the ability to think critically, and therefore your criticism, feedback and suggestions are necessary. Second, I would like you to enhance your writing and oral communication skills in this course. Therefore, it is important to clearly elaborate your arguments in the class discussion as well as in the written assignments.

Third, we are each part of the human mosaic, and all have different experiences based on our social, political and economic differences. We can all learn from and respect each other and benefit from our diversity. Please try to learn from and understand those with different perspectives than you. Lastly, we need to learn that we are all part of this intellectual community and larger society, and all have social and ethical responsibilities to our family, community, classmates, and humanity. We live in a globalized world and therefore, we need to be aware of events in our community, and the world today. In order to enhance our knowledge, we must critically examine our social, political and economic environment in order to apply this knowledge to our experience.

Course Requirements

To prevent confusion later, please read the following information:

Grades: Your grade for this course will be based on your performance on the following components, shown below with their dates and respective weights.

Item                                                                                                    Weight (%)

Quizzes (4)                                                                                                     40.0
Weekly Online Presentations                                                                      10.0
Final Paper                                                                                                    30.0
Class Participation/Attendance                                                                   10.0
Newspaper Articles                                                                                       10.0

Quizzes: You will have 4 quizzes. The quizzes will have 20 questions from each week’s class readings and discussions. Each Quiz is worth 10 points and each question is worth 0.5 point. You will find the schedule of quizzes below. Please carefully review the quiz schedule. If you have schedule conflict, drop the class. If you have any questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to contact me directly.      

Weekly Online Presentations: Each week, one or two students will be assigned a weekly topic from the readings. These students will summarize the readings and prepare a content outline and 4-6 questions for the class, in order to come prepared to lead the online class discussion for 15 to 30 minutes. Each student must always read the course materials before they attend class, and I expect you to participate actively in the class discussion. I strongly recommend that you present in earlier weeks rather than later in the semester, because you may not find the right time available to present, and will lose presentation points. Presentation dates are available on a first-come first-served basis. The timeline for weekly presentations will be provided in the first week of class. After we have filled in student names and finalized the weekly presentation schedule.

Final Paper and Analytical Paper: Please understand that this requirement involves a two-step process. You will select a global issue and write a critical analysis about this issue related with China and the Middle East. It should be at least 3000 words and you must provide a word count at the end of your paper. Everyone will select a different topic. Your selection must be approved and registered by me; therefore, you must contact me directly regarding your topic selection. The deadline for selecting/registering your topic is Sunday, the 5th week of the class. The Final Paper is due on Sunday June 9th, the last week of school. Late submissions will not be accepted.

  1. Analytical Paper: In the first part of this assignment, you will select a topic related with China and the Middle East and Africa. You will write a proposal/abstract (at least 500 words) for your research, describing the contents of your paper and sources (books, articles and newspaper articles – this should include at least 10 different sources) and will send it to me by email on Sunday, the 5th week of the course. You need to email me your analytical paper and it should be in MS Word Document. In this step of your assignment, you need to demonstrate a clear focus (time and geography – very specific) and a CLEAR RESEARCH QUESTION! If you are late, you lose 5 points. DO NOT FORGET, YOUR PROPOSAL MUST BE APPROVED BY THE INSTRUCTOR BY APRIL 26TH MIDNIGHT; THEREFORE, DO NOT EXPECT FROM ME TO APPROVE YOUR PROPOSAL AT 11 PM NIGHT! You need to email your proposal or come and talk to me before you submit! 10 POINTS

  1. Final Paper: In the second part of your assignment, after I have accepted your proposal, you will start writing your paper based on the described contents, references and research question you provided in the analytical paper. You will email your final paper by Monday June 8, 2020. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate contact me directly! Your final paper should be at least 3000 words in length, excluding bibliography and references. If you are late, you lose 10 points. 20 POINTS             

Attendance: Regular attendance is one of the most important parameters to successful completion of the course requirements. If you miss more than 4 classes, you will not receive an attendance grade.  Excuses will not be permitted for any reason.

Class Participation: Each student must read the course materials before they attend class and I expect them to participate in class discussion. Class participation in the form of informed questions and comments will be taken into consideration when determining your final grade. Additionally, the class participation grade also depends on class attendance.

Newspaper Articles: During the semester, you email ( 10 newspaper articles related with our class subjects. In your email, please send me the link of an article and summarize it with a few sentences. You cannot send more than one article in the same week. You will find weekly article topic in the course schedule below.

Coming late to class: Late comers will not be accepted to class, so be on time. If you are late for a class, please do not disturb your classmates and me and do not come at all. Please also do not send an email or call me regarding your class attendance. If there is a medical need, bring an official letter from a doctor. Whatever the reason is, if you cannot come to class, this is your responsibility. If you miss more than 4 classes, you will not receive an attendance grade.

Laptop and cell phone policy: No laptops or cell phones will be allowed in this class. Please turn your cell phone off before you come to class. If you use the Internet/laptop or your cell phone during class, you will be asked to leave.

  • Why a leading professor of new media just banned technology use in class
  • Why you should take notes by hand — not on a laptop
  • To Remember a Lecture Better, Take Notes by Hand

Responsibility: You and/or your parents pay tuition for this class; therefore, you have responsibility to yourself and/or your parents. Passing or failing the class is not the main objective, rather that you learn and improve your knowledge. Please read and try to understand the main concepts of this class. If you are having difficulty, please do not hesitate to see me and discuss your concerns!

Each year, millions of people graduate from Chinese, American or global universities (see As you will see from the statistics, the job market is very competitive; therefore, students need to improve their knowledge, skill, and experience in order to find a job they want. Learning is a lifelong process. An academic institution like Shanghai University will provide you with an educational discipline and methodology; everything else is up to you. You should study and improve your skills, in order to compete with the rest of the graduates. While you are in the program, you should apply for internships to obtain relevant experiences before you graduate. Therefore, if you need a letter of recommendation for an internship or job, please do not hesitate to ask me, if you receive at least an A, A- or B+ grade from my class. Please also remember that an undergraduate degree might not be enough to find the job you want; therefore, you might need to apply to graduate school. In order to apply to graduate school, you will also need to have a letter of recommendation. I am also happy to advise you on graduate school or provide a letter of recommendation if you receive an A, A- or B+ grade. 

No Laptops and cell phones will be allowed in this class.

Course Schedule

First Week

·       Overview of the syllabus

Yitzhak Shichor. The Middle East in China's Foreign Policy, 1949-1977
·       Introduction 1
·       1 China's encounter with the Middle East 9

·       China looks to bolster its Middle East reach - Inside Story
·       Rising superpower: Why are Middle Eastern leaders coming to China? CGTN

Newspaper Article Topic: China's Foreign Policy Toward Syria

Second Week

Yitzhak Shichor. The Middle East in China's Foreign Policy, 1949-1977
·       2 Sino-Arab peaceful co-existence 37
·       3 The struggle against imperialism 70

·       Keskin Tugrul and Christian Braun. When a Sleeping Giant Wakes – A Neoclassical Realist Analysis of China’s Expanding Ties in the Middle East. Sociology of Islam 4 (2016) 1-26.
·       Michael Beckley. China's Century? Why America's Edge Will Endure - MIT. International Security, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Winter 2011/12), pp. 41–78.

·       Full Video: Xi Jinping addresses the China-Arab States Cooperation Forum
·       Jerusalem Studio: China's interests in the Middle East
·       China's Role in the Middle East: Pan Guang

Newspaper Article Topic: China Versus US in the Middle East

Third Week

Yitzhak Shichor. The Middle East in China's Foreign Policy, 1949-1977
·       4 The struggle against imperialism and revisionism 106
·       5 The struggle against social imperialism 145
·       Conclusion 189

·       Lillian Craig Harris. China's Relations with the PLO. Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 123-154.
·       Chaoling Feng. Embracing Interdependence: The Dynamics of China and the Middle East. Brookings Doha Center. Policy Briefing April 2015.
·       Stig Stenslie. China debates its future role in the Middle East. Noref expert Analysis – May 2014.

·       Western Approaches: Responses to China from the Middle East and Central Asia.
·       Roberts: USA vs China in the Middle East

Newspaper Article Topic: China's Foreign Policy Toward Palestine   

Fourth Week

QUIZ – 1

·       Chaziza, M. (2017). Israel–China Relations Enter a New Stage: Limited Strategic Hedging. Contemporary Review of the Middle East, 5(1), 30–45.
·       Yoram Evron. China’s diplomatic initiatives in the Middle East: the quest for a great-power role in the region. International Relations 2017, Vol. 31(2) 125–144.

·       Political Conflict to Economic Cooperation: Sino-Turkish Relations in the Context of New Era. Michael McCall and Tugrul Keskin

·       Talk to Al Jazeera - Zhang Weiwei: The China Wave
·       China and the Middle East: Rising Power and a Region in Turmoil
·       The Heat discusses China-Middle East relations - CGTN
·       Israeli PM Netanyahu meets Pres. Xi on 25th anniversary of China-Israel ties - CGTN
·       Turkey and China: Partners against terror? - CCTV
·       Exclusive interview with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan – CGTN

Newspaper Article Topic: China's Foreign Policy Toward Turkey or Israel

Fifth Week

·       Iran and the Belt and Road Initiative: Amid Hope and Fear. Mohsen Shariatinia and Hamidreza Azizi. JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY CHINA, 2019.

·       The Chinese Breakthrough in the Arab and Mediterranean Markets. Bichara Khader. 2018.

·       Muhamad S. Olimat. China and North Africa since World War II: A Bilateral Approach
Chapter One: China and North Africa: An Overview.

·       Treading with Caution: China's Multidimensional Interventions in the Gulf Region. Imad Mansour. The China Quarterly, 2019.

·       The Debate - Iran-China ties – Press TV
·       Discussion: China-Iran ties – CGTN
·       IISS - Mahmood Abdulla: The Past, Present, and Future for GCC Investment in China
IISS - A New Era of GCC Geo-Economic Opportunity with China and India
·       Egypt: Made in China - Al Jazeera World

Analytical Paper: In the first part of this assignment, you will select a topic related with China and the Middle East. You will write a proposal/abstract (at least 500 words) for your research, describing the contents of your paper and sources (books, articles and newspaper articles – this should include at least 10 different sources) and will send it to me by email on Sunday, the 5th week of the course. You need to email me your analytical paper and it should be in MS Word Document. In this step of your assignment, you need to demonstrate a clear focus (time and geography – very specific) and a CLEAR RESEARCH QUESTION! If you are late, you lose 5 points. DO NOT FORGET, YOUR PROPOSAL MUST BE APPROVED BY THE INSTRUCTOR BY APRIL 26TH MIDNIGHT; THEREFORE, DO NOT EXPECT FROM ME TO APPROVE YOUR PROPOSAL AT 11 PM NIGHT! You need to email your proposal or come and talk to me before you submit! 10 POINTS

Newspaper Article Topic: China's Foreign Policy Toward Iran or Arab World

Sixth Week

QUIZ – 2

·       Adie, W. A. C. (1964). Chou En-lai on Safari. The China Quarterly, 18, 174.
·       Sino‐African Relations: A Review and Reconciliation of Dominant Schools of Thought. Simplice A. Asongu. Politics and Poilicy, 2016.
·       Origin, Achievements, and Prospects of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. Zeng Aiping & Shu Zhan. China International Studies, 2018.
·       Li Anshan, Liu Haifang, Pan Huaqiong, Zeng Aiping and He Wenping, “FOCAC Twelve Years Later: Achievements, Challenges and the Way Forward.” Peking University Discussion Paper 74 (2012). Direct link: content/blogs.dir/698/files/2012/07/FOCAC-10-ans3.pdf

·       President Xi Jinping addresses opening ceremony of FOCAC summit
·       Trade Winds between China and Africa (Episode I)
·       Does Africa benefit from its relations with China? | Inside Story 
·       What Africans Think Of China Colonizing Africa?

Newspaper Article Topic: China Versus US in Africa

Seventh Week

·       Eleanor Albert, “China in Africa,” Council on Foreign Relations (12 July 2017). Direct link:
·       Government of China white paper, “China’s Second Africa Policy Paper,” December 2015. Direct link:
·       President Xi Jinping, “Text of Speech at 6th FOCAC Summit on 5 December 2015.” Direct link:

·       Trade Winds between China and Africa (Episode II)
·       Chinese in Zambia - Straight through Africa

Newspaper Article Topic:

Eighth Week

QUIZ – 3

·       Xiang, Z. (2008). From Sino—African Relations Comes a Steady Stream of Enlightening Guidance. Contemporary Chinese Thought, 40(1), 11–28.
·       China, Africa's New Colonial Master? Emmanuel Igbinoba. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: Economics and Commerce: Volume 16 Issue 5. Year 2016.
·       China’s Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa. Anna Katharina Stahl. Roma, IAI, settembre 2016.

·       A NEW ERA OF CHINAAFRICA COOPERATION Episode 3Integrated Interests |CCTV English
·       Closing the Gap China-Africa ties: The human stories behind the ‘China phenomenon’ in Africa

Ninth Week

·       Getahun Zewde, “Post 2006 Ethio-China Trade Relations: Challenges and Prospects,” Asian Research Journal of Arts and Social Sciences (2017). Direct link: 33141.pdf
·       Xiaofang Shen, “Private Chinese Investment in Africa: Myths and Realities,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 6311 (January 2013). Direct link:

·       A NEW ERA OF CHINAAFRICA COOPERATION Episode 4Connecting People|CCTV English
·       China's Footprint in Africa
·       Faces Of Africa - When Chinese Meet Zambians

Tenth Week

QUIZ – 4

·       China's Expanding African Relations Implications for U.S. National Security. Lloyd Thrall. RAND, 2015.
·       Government of China white paper, “China’s Foreign Aid,” State Council (July 2014). Direct link:

·       Roundtable: China-Africa relations - who benefits? TRT World
·       How is Africa positioned in China’s global strategy? CTGN

By Monday June 8, 2020
Midnight of Sunday