Wednesday, October 29, 2014

A New Book: China’s Search for Security

Andrew J. Nathan and Andrew Scobell

Columbia University Press - 2012

Despite its impressive size and population, economic vitality, and drive to upgrade its military, China Though rooted in the present, Nathan and Scobell’s study makes ample use of the past, reaching back into history to illuminate the people and institutions shaping Chinese strategy today. They also examine Chinese views of the United States; explain why China is so concerned about Japan; and uncover China’s interests in such problematic countries as North Korea, Iran, and the Sudan. The authors probe recent troubles in Tibet and Xinjiang and explore their links to forces beyond China’s borders. They consider the tactics deployed by mainland China and Taiwan, as Taiwan seeks to maintain autonomy in the face of Chinese advances toward unification. They evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of China’s three main power resources—economic power, military power, and soft power.

The authors conclude with recommendations for the United States as it seeks to manage China’s rise. Chinese policymakers understand that their nation’s prosperity, stability, and security depend on cooperation with the United States. If handled wisely, the authors believe, relations between the two countries can produce mutually beneficial outcomes for both Asia and the world.
remains a vulnerable nation surrounded by powerful rivals and potential foes. Understanding China’s foreign policy means fully appreciating these geostrategic challenges, which persist even as the country gains increasing influence over its neighbors. Andrew J. Nathan and Andrew Scobell analyze China’s security concerns on four fronts: at home, with its immediate neighbors, in surrounding regional systems, and in the world beyond Asia. By illuminating the issues driving Chinese policy, they offer a new perspective on the country’s rise and a strategy for balancing Chinese and American interests in Asia.


Part I. Interest and Identity in Chinese Foreign Policy

1. What Drives Chinese Foreign Policy?

2. Who Runs Chinese Foreign Policy?

Part II. Security Challenges and Strategies

3. Life on the Hinge: China’s Russia Policy During the Cold War and After

4. Deciphering the U.S. Threat

5. The Northeast Asia Regional System: Japan and the Two Koreas

6. China’s Other Neighbors: The Asia-Pacific

7. China in the Fourth Ring

Part III. Holding Together: Territorial Integrity and Foreign Policy

8. Problems of Stateness: Tibet, Xinjiang, Hong Kong, and Taiwan

9. Taiwan’s Democratic Transition and China’s Response

Part IV. Instruments of Power

10. Dilemmas of Opening: Power and Vulnerability in the Global Economy

11. Military Modernization: From People’s War to Power Projection

12. Soft Power and Human Rights in Chinese Foreign Policy

Part V. Conclusion

13. Threat or Equilibrium?


Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Al-Qaeda Declares War on China, Too

Al-Qaeda has joined the Islamic State in calling for jihad against China for its Uyghur policies.

By Zachary Keck

The Diplomat - October 22, 2014

Al-Qaeda central appears to have joined the Islamic State in calling for jihad against China over its alleged occupation of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
This week, al-Sahab media organization, al-Qaeda’s propaganda arm, released the first issue of its new English-language magazine Resurgence. The magazine has a strong focus on the Asia-Pacific in general, with feature articles on both India and Bangladesh, as well as others on Afghanistan and Pakistan.
However, the first issue also contains an article entitled “10 Facts About East Turkistan,” which refers to the name given to Xinjiang by those who favor independence from China. The ten facts seek to cast Xinjiang as a longtime independent state that has only recently been brutally colonized by Han Chinese, who are determined to obliterate its Islamic heritage.
“In the last 1,000 years of its Islamic history,” the article says, Xinjiang “has remained independent for 763 years, while 237 years have been spent under Chinese occupation at various intervals.”
This occupation has been costly, the article argues, alleging that: “In 1949, 93 percent of the population of East Turkistan was Uyghur, while 7 percent was Chinese. Today, as a result of six decades of forced displacement of the native population and the settlement of Han Chinese in their place, almost 45 percent of the population of East Turkistan is Chinese.”


What Is a Uyghur?

By Rian Thum

Los Angeles Review of Books - October 26th, 2014

IN THE SCRAMBLE to make sense of the violence and repression in China’s Western region of Xinjiang, where many of the Uyghur inhabitants resist Chinese rule, local Uyghur perspectives have gone largely unreported. The following extract, from The Sacred Routes of Uyghur History, aims to uncover Uyghur understandings of the region’s history and the forces that shaped those understandings. One example of what is commonly overlooked is the term “Altishahr,” a Uyghur word for the part of Xinjiang traditionally inhabited by the Uyghurs (and, incidentally, the name of the most popular Uyghur rap group). In this extract, the word is adapted as “Altishahri,” that is, a person from Altishahr, to address an unusual obstacle to writing about Uyghur history: as of, say, 1900, there were no Uyghurs. “Uyghur” at that time was the name of an extinct ancient kingdom, while the people of Altishahr called themselves simply “Musulman” (Muslim). In the first decades of the 20th century, Altishahri elites revived the “Uyghur” term as a name for their own ethnic group, but it took quite a long time for the name to catch on. That process, outlined below, was accompanied by the radical shift from a media landscape dominated by manuscripts to the eventual ascendancy of the printed word. The fitful and slow penetration of print ultimately facilitated new imaginations of a Uyghur past, transforming an older system of Altishahri history, which had been characterized by tazkirahs, the biographies of local Muslim saints.  (Adapted from The Sacred Routes of Uyghur History by Rian Thum, published by Harvard University Press. Copyright © 2014 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Used by permission. All rights reserved.)

Reformers, Nationalism, and the “Uyghur” Identity

Between the fall of Ya‘qub Beg’s state in 1877 and the arrival of Chinese Communist rule in 1949, reform movements laid the groundwork for new ways of understanding the world, which would eventually reshape Altishahr’s approach to the past. Among the new ideas that took root in Altishahr, nationalism represented perhaps the most profound reorganization of Altishahri self-imagination since the arrival of Islam.1 Early ventures in nationalist thought appeared against the background of a dizzyingly complex succession of political upheavals, driven by actors as diverse as Han Chinese anti-Qing revolutionaries, disbanded Qing soldiers, military strongmen, Uyghur nationalists, and communist revolutionaries. In the first half of the 20th century, Altishahr saw Qing imperial rule, tyrannical autocrats, loosely democratic experiments, and early moves toward socialism.2 At the same time, printing, the telegraph, radio, film, and modern industry made their first inroads in the region. There is no room in this study for an in-depth look at all of these phenomena in their interaction, but it would be impossible to discuss the encounter between nationalism and Altishahri tazkirah-based historical practice without providing a thumbnail sketch of the processes by which nationalist thought became a central feature of the new Altishahri worldview.


Monday, October 20, 2014

2014 APEC Third Senior Officials' Meeting (SOM3) Held in Beijing

On 20-21 August, 2014 APEC Third Senior Officials' Meeting (SOM3) was held in Beijing. As the last plenary gathering of Senior Officials before this year's Leaders' Week, its main objective is to make comprehensive preparation for the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM) in November. During the two-day meeting, Senior Officials from 21 APEC member economies held in-depth discussions centered around the theme "Shaping the Future through Asia-Pacific Partnership" and the three priority areas, including regional economic integration, innovative development, economic reform and growth, and comprehensive connectivity and infrastructure development. The discussions allowed APEC members to build more consensus and implement cooperation initiatives, making sound preparations for the outcomes of the Leaders' Meeting.
State Councilor H.E. Mr. Yang Jiechi, Chairman of the APEC China 2014 Organizing Committee, addressed the opening of the meeting. Vice Foreign Minister Li Baodong, 2014 APEC SOM Chair, presided the meeting. Assistant Commerce Minister Wang Shouwen attended the meeting. Meeting participants also include delegates from 21 APEC member economies, APEC Secretariat, ABAC, and APEC observers.


America, China and the Islamic State

Shanghai Institutes for International Studies

By Dan Steinbock

Washington has launched still another “war against terror” in the Middle East and beyond. It is the kind of escalation that the Islamic State has hoped. In contrast, Beijing is likely to stick to cautious engagement.

Half a month after offering the American people his rationale for taking the United States into a new Middle East war to combat the Islamic State (IS), President Obama issued a call to the world to join America in the fight against violent religious extremism. Taking the moral high ground, President Obama told the UN General Assembly that “there can be no reasoning, no negotiations with this brand of evil.”

Undoubtedly, the IS represents the kind of brutality that is new even in the most violent war-torn enclaves of the Middle East.

But as the critics see it, the rise of the Islamic State is the result of President Bush’s war on terror and military actions, while its further radicalization is the effect of President Obama’s efforts to overcome the Middle East’s divides with raw military power, but without ground troops – and a political solution.

Huge investment, barbaric returns

A decade ago, neoconservatives in Washington envisioned a new democratic Middle East, including a stable, prosperous Iraq that would be united and peaceful. And they walked the talk. Between 2003 and 2012, U.S. aid to Iraq totaled more than $57 billion. During the same period, war costs in Iraq soared to $3.5 trillion (Joint Economic Committee of Congress). That’s more than 20 percent of U.S. gross domestic product.


The Delegation of Turkish Think Tanks Visit SIIS

Shanghai Institutes for International Studies 

On September 29, Led by Mr. Yasar YAKIS, former Turkish Foreign Minister, the delegation of Turkish Think Tanks visit SIIS and talk about Middle East situation and China-Turkish relations with Prof. Yang Jiemian, Chairman of the Council of SIIS Academic Affairs, Prof. Li Weijian, Executive Director of the Institute for Foreign Policy Studies, Dr. Ye Qing, Director of the Center for West Asian & African Studies, Dr. Jin Liangxiang, Mr. Zhou Yiqi, Dr. Zhang Weiting from the Center for West Asian & African Studies also attend the meeting. After the meeting, SIIS President Chen Dongxiao meets with the delegation and exchanges views on major powers’ role on Middle East situation, Afghanistan situation and some other issues.


Saturday, October 18, 2014

China's Resistance War Against Japanese Aggression

CCTV - On Sept. 18, 1931, 

Japanese troops blew up a section of railway near Shenyang that was under their control. They then accused Chinese troops of sabotaging the railway to create a pretext for war. Later that evening, they bombarded the barracks of Chinese troops near Shenyang, starting a large-scale armed invasion of northeast China. On July 7, 1937, the Lugouqiao Incident occurred, and the nationwide War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression started.

China, U.S. working to ensure positive results from Obama's upcoming China visit

Zhang Jianfeng

Xinhua  10-19-2014

BOSTON, Oct. 18 (Xinhua) -- Chinese State Councillor Yang Jiechi said here Saturday that China is willing to work with the United States to make proper preparations for the upcoming visit to China by U.S. President Barack Obama so that it can yield positive results.
Yang made the remarks during his talks with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, during which they exchanged views in depth on the construction of a new model of major-country relationship as well as regional and international issues of mutual concern.
The discussions focused on the preparations for the visit to China in early November by Obama, while attending the informal leadership meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) to be held in Beijing in November.
Yang saluted "new and positive progress" that has been made in various aspects of the China-U.S. ties since last year's summit held by Obama and Chinese President Xi Jinping at the Annenberg Estate in California, where the two leaders reached an important consensus on seeking to build a new model of major-country relationship featuring non-conflict and non-confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation.


Friday, October 17, 2014

Report: China and Algeria Relations (In Turkish)

Çin-Cezayir İlişkileri

Hatice EKE

Bigesam - 25 Ağustos 2014

Çin Afrika’daki varlığını yumuşak güç unsurlarını kullanarak pekiştirmeye devam etmektedir. Kara kıtada alt yapı çalışmaları, inşaat, haberleşme ve ulaşım alanlarında yaptığı yatırımlar ve kıtayla gün geçtikçe gelişen ticaret bağları Pekin’in elini oldukça güçlü kılmaktadır. Aynı şekilde Cezayir’de oldukça önemli bir seviyeye ulaşmış olan Çin yatırımları ve ikili ticaretin hacmi iki ülke arasındaki ilişkilerin geldiği noktayı görmek açısından dikkat çekmektedir. Öyle ki, Çin 2013 yılında Cezayir’in en çok ticaret yaptığı Fransa’yı da geride bırakarak tedarikçiler arasında ilk sıraya yerleşmiştir. Ayrıca yapılan yatırımların büyük çoğunluğunun Cezayir kamu ihaleleri üzerinden olduğunun da altı çizilmelidir. Cezayir, başta eski Sömürgecisi Fransa olmak üzere Avrupa ülkeleri ve ABD ile sahip olduğu ilişkilere ilaveten bu aktörlerden birçok açıdan farklı olan Çin ile ilişkilerini geliştirmek istemektedir. Cezayir’in Çin’i birçok alanda ortak olarak seçmesinin arkasındaki temel saikler batıya olan bağımlılığı kırmak, Çin dış politikasının milli çıkarlarla çok daha uyumlu bulunan iç işlerine müdahale etmeme ve “kazan-kazan” gibi politik ilkeler üzerinde şekillenmesi, Çin’in büyüyen iktisadi gücünden faydalanmak şeklinde sıralanabilir. Bağımsızlık mücadelesi yıllarına kadar dayanan Çin-Cezayir ilişkileri, 1999 seçimlerinin ardından uygulanması meclis tarafından kararlaştırılan ekonomik reformlarla birlikte iktisadi alanda da ivme kazanmış, iki ülke arasındaki bağlar güçlenmiştir. Bu analiz çerçevesinde Cezayir-Çin ilişkilerinin başta enerji ve altyapı konularında olmak üzere yatırımlar ile ticaret kalemlerine vurgu yaparak ekonomi ve -sınırlı olmakla beraber- güvenlik alanındaki yansımaları ele alınacaktır.


Wednesday, October 1, 2014

China celebrates 65th anniversary | 2014-09-30

BEIJING, Sept. 30 (Xinhua) -- President Xi Jinping said Tuesday China will continue to give priority to development, adhere to reform and innovation and stay committed to the path of peaceful development.
Xi made the remarks when addressing a reception marking the 65th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Xi called for enhanced unity within the Communist Party of China (CPC), adding that the CPC should reinforce cooperation with other parties and maintain the bond with the people.
"We must stand firmly with the people," Xi said. "We will always proceed from and aim at realizing, safeguarding and developing the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people."
He called for enhanced confidence in the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics as well as in the theory and system regarding the path.
The Communist Party of China is key to the country's success, Xi said.


Plight of Uighurs in China

Jamal Doumani 

ARAB NEWS - Friday 26 September 2014

Like their fellow-ideologues in the former Soviet Union, communist officials in Beijing have kept their promise: They will answer dissent with repression. In China today, if you’re the member of an ethnic minority with a complaint, that you are rash enough to air in public, expect to be dragged into “court” to face a life sentence.
That’s what happened to prominent Uighur intellectual Ilham Tohti last Tuesday. Tohti is widely respected abroad as a moderate voice within China’s eight million-strong Muslim Uighur community, who inhabit Xinjiang Province in the country’s far northwestern corner. The charges were advocating separatism, criticizing the government and “voicing support for terrorists.”


Saudi Arabia admits to purchase of Chinese DF-21 missile

Staff Reporter    

WANT CHINA TIMES - 2014-09-22

Saudi Arabia purchased DF-21 ballistic missiles from China to defend Mecca and Medina, said Dr. Anwar Eshqi, a retired major general and advisor to the joint military council of Saudi Arabia, during a press conference.
"Saudi military did indeed receive DF-21 missiles from China and the integration of the missiles, including a full maintenance check and upgraded facilities, is complete," said Eshqi as cited in the state-run newspaper OKAZ. In addition to defending two holy cities of Islam, the DF-21 will also be used to form a protective umbrella to defend Saudi Arbia's allies over the Persian Gulf, he added, indicating that the missiles are not for offensive attacks.


China and Saudi Arabia: Working together for bright future

Saudi Gazette - Wednesday, October 01, 2014

On the occasion of the 65th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, on behalf of the staff of the Chinese Embassy in the Kingdom and myself, I would like to extend warm congratulations and sincere wishes to the Chinese community living and working in Saudi Arabia. I would also like to pay tribute to the leadership of the Kingdom and its friendly people for their care and contribution to Sino-Saudi relations.

Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government and its people have been working strenuously to build their homeland. Now, China’s GDP exceeds $9 trillion which ranks second in the world. China is the largest trader in goods with the highest foreign exchange reserves in the world. We are also witnessing significant developments in the fields of industry, agriculture, education, science, health, tourism and etc. With political stability, prosperous economy and progressing society, China is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. During the first half of 2014, China’s economic growth rate remained high at 7.4%.


A Piece of China for Piece of Turkey

Tal Buenos

Daily Sabah - 29.09.2014

World historiography and politics have yet to catch up with post-colonial times. However, the following discovery may push further toward international recognition of political realities that are strongly linked with a history of Western imperialism: there is documentation to show that the ones who sought to tear up the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century are the same people who spoke freely of carving up China.

The crossing paths of Western imperialism in China and Turkey are exposed in a letter that was sent on May 16, 1895 to James Bryce in London from Robert Stein of the U.S. Department of the Interior in Washington


China Looks Forward to Free Trade Agreement with Turkey

Daily Sabah - 28.09.2014 

Turkey's Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu met with his Chinese counterpart Wang Yi on Saturday as part of the on-going UN General Assembly meetings in New York.

As the ministers agreed on advancing bilateral ties between Turkey and China, Chinese minister said that a free trade agreement between the two countries can benefit both sides.

During the meeting, the Chinese delegation said they are looking forward to a visit by President Erdoğan to China while, the Turkish officials urged China to support Turkey as a temporary member of UN Security Council.

Both sides' ministers had focused on several issues including high speed rail projects in Turkey and cooperation in defence systems and nuclear energy.