Jiemian YANG’s Dinner Keynote Speech at the East Asian Partners Dialogue on Latin American Studies Co-Sponsored by the China Academy of Social Sciences, the Shanghai Academy and the Shanghai Institutes for International Studies on June 15, 2016
Mr. Xi Jinping became the CPC Secretary General in November 2012 and the
PRC President in March 2013. In the past three years and more, China’s
Foreign Policy under President Xi is both a continuity of the past and a
change of the present with a view to the future developments. Here I
would like to share some of my personal thoughts on the following four
points: 1. Internal and External Contexts; 2. Theories and Strategies;
3. Policies and Actions; and 4. Difficulties and Challenges.
1. Internal and External Contexts
President Xi’s Foreign Policy is basically determined by both internal
and external contexts. However, different leadership has its different
imprints on foreign policy because of different perception, judgment and
1.1. Internal drivers for China’s foreign policy. Someone said that
President Xi knows what China wants. I would put it into three groups of
driving forces. Firstly, it is to strive for China’s rejuvenation and
modernization. It includes economic development and defense development.
Secondly, it is to pursue a better and fairer society. It is more of
political and social goals. Thirdly, it is to work at a role consistent
with China’s history, population and comprehensive national strength.
1.2. External Drivers. On its own initiative, China’s international
positions and roles are greatly increasing. China has a built-in urge
for further reform and opening up so as to go with the on-going
globalization and information age. Moreover, China is more proactive in
participating and promoting global governance and regional cooperation.
On the outside pushers, the re-configuration of world powers is in favor
of the emerging powers including China. The international community
lays greater hope on China’s contribution to the peace and prosperity of
the world. The West, especially the United States has heightened its
strategic vigilance on China’s rising.
2. Theories and Strategies
President Xi attaches particular importance to diplomatic theory and
strategy. He stresses that China’s foreign policy should be guided by
the right theory and strategy. Conversely, China’s foreign policy
practice should conscientiously be crystallized into theory and
2.1. Features of President Xi’s Diplomatic Theory. President Xi’s
diplomatic theory is based on the basic theory of China’s overall
political thinking and foreign relations principles.
Firstly, President Xi emphasizes on diplomatic philosophy that is to
learn to summarize the laws and rules of developments by right positions
and methodologies, especially historical and dialectical materialism.
Therefore, China’s diplomatic theory is characterized with long-term
vision and broad thinking of the world. China’s overall framework of the
worldview is the general point of departures and arrivals.
Secondly, President Xi learns hard the fine tradition of Chinese history
and cultures and adapts them to the present and future realities. Both
late Chairman Mao Zedong and President Xi like to quote Chinese ancient
sayings. However, Mao’s quotations are often related to political
struggles but Xi’s emphasis is more on good governance and friendly
neighborhood. That President Xi inherits and carries forward the Chinese
culture can basically be summed up as building of fairer and better off
Chinese societies, peace loving and peace defending, and orderly human
Thirdly, President Xi works out a number of new concepts in line with
the new developments, such as right approach between virtue and
interests, new type of international relations based on win-win
cooperation, new model of major country relations. In a longer run,
President Xi also wants to put these pieces of concepts into more
systematic theories. Furthermore, Xi’s theoretic concepts are more
constructive and converging to the rest of the world.
2.2. Features of President Xi’s diplomatic strategies. Strategy is a
frequent reference in President Xi’s speeches and statements. Under him,
more strategic elements have been added to the domestic, regional and
global dimensions of China’s diplomacy.
First of all, President Xi is a man of strategy, partly attributable to
his family and personal backgrounds of long evolving in China’s politics
and militaries, but more because of China being at a historical turning
point. Upon approaching to the center-stage of the world, China needs
more strategic thinking, top-level planning and bottom-line clarity.
President Xi also put forth a number of strategies of global, regional
and bilateral affairs such as Belt and Road Initiative and China-Latin
America and the Caribbean relations.
Secondly, President Xi’s strategy is characterized by holistic and
dialectic thinking. President Xi puts all the major events and issues
under broader framework of thinking, if not globally at least
regionally. He also likes to deal with these events and issues in an
integrated way. In the past three years, China has already convened two
important national conferences on foreign strategies and policies. One
is working conference on neighborhood diplomacy in October 2013. The
other is Central Working Conference on Foreign Affairs in November 2014.
Both of them are of great strategic significance on China’s foreign
policy. As a matter of fact, they set the tone and guide the general
direction of China’s diplomacy at least for the first term.
Thirdly, President Xi’s strategies are made up by both thematic
diplomacy and country/regional one. China used to focus on diplomatic
work towards countries and region. They are still the foci. China’s
respective diplomacy is now more of global and multilateral, regional
and interregional contents. In January 2015, President Xi Jinping
attended in Beijing the opening ceremony of the first ministerial
meeting of the Forum of China and the Community of Latin American and
Caribbean States (CELAC), thus giving a final touch to the all-coverage
of China’s cooperative mechanisms with all the developing regions.
Additionally, China has recently developed thematic strategies in world
economy, climate change and new commons. These are the new developments
of China’s strategy to global governance and international system.
3. Policies and Actions
Policies are the actual carriers for translating theories and strategies
into realities. Foreign policies and actions catch the most attentions
of the media and people. Obviously, President Xi’s foreign policies and
actions have already made them prominent among the contemporary ones.
3.1. Clear and Determined. Compared with his predecessors, President
Xi’s foreign policies and actions are more of a global power’s
approaches and styles.
Firstly, they are clear in purposes, visions and missions. President Xi
repeatedly stresses that China’s foreign policies should show its major
power’s responsibilities. He has made many speeches covering almost all
the realms of global affairs and China’s diplomacy. Moreover, he is a
man of action. Under his leadership, China initiated the BRICS New
Development Bank and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, enhanced its
support to the UN Peace-Keeping and other expenditures, and offered
substantive assistance to the developing countries, especially the least
developed countries (LDCs).
Secondly, they are firm and determined. Once President Xi and his
colleagues have made the decisions, they will relentlessly promote and
advance them. China is firm for a relation with the United States on the
equal footing. China is determined to safeguard its rights in the South
China Sea. China goes all out for maintaining stability. All are very
much indicative of these features.
Thirdly, they are more predictable. President Xi is a straightforward
person and he calls a spade a spade. According to his Selected Works and
public speeches, one is not difficult to conclude what he wants to do
and what he opposes to. For instance, President Xi’s attendance of UN
Summits and Paris Conference on Climate Change in September 2015 show
clearly what China want to shoulder the responsibilities in global
governance and international system.
3.2. Pragmatic and Economic-Oriented. China is still a developing
country and its strength mainly lies in the field of economics. However,
China has greatly enhanced its economic clouts and upgraded its
economic ladders. Therefore, China tries to effectively use the economic
leverage to promote its foreign policy. For instance, China’s relations
with the Latin American countries are mostly in the economic field.
Another instance is China’s four partnerships with Europe for reform,
growth, peace and civilization. Mostly they are of economic nature
3.3. Low-Politics and Public Diplomacy. China has attached greater
importance to the low politics and public diplomacy. President Xi
stresses people-to-people exchanges and calls for greater roles of think
4. Difficulties and Challenges
Foreign policy goes beyond one’s own country and is affected by both
domestic and international factors. President Xi’s foreign policy is
also confronted with many difficulties and challenges, some of them are
profound ones. Particularly the following four merit our special
4.1. The first is the limits. There is still a big gap between China’s
goals and capabilities in foreign policy. Firstly, it is the hard power.
In terms of domestic strength, China is about 75th place in the world
according to per capita in 2015. In terms of comprehensive national
strength, China is still lag behind in many fields such as science,
technology and military. In many cases China ranks high in the
production volume but low in the qualitative terms. Secondly, it is the
intellectual and cultural power. In Chinese we say Mao Zedong lifted
China out of a weak position being beaten, Deng Xiaoping the poor
position being starvation, and it is still expected that Xi Jinping out
of the position being scolded. Thirdly, it is the institutions and
mechanisms. China is a late and new comer at the institution and
mechanism building of the international community. It is inexperienced
and lacks accumulation of theories, talents and practices. The most
obvious example is that China hosts no substantive Asian organizations
of the United Nations, although China is the most important Asian
4.2. The second is priorities. For an administration that is expected to
serve for two terms, President Xi has put forward a long list of
domestic and foreign agendas for the years between 2013 and 2020. Some
are long term and grandiose ones such as China Dream, Two Centennials
and Belt and Road Initiative. Some are tough ones such as China-U.S.
relations and South China Sea disputes. Therefore, these agendas and
goals should be prioritized and focus on those that are doable and
4.3. The third is capacities. On the one hand, it is important to make
full use of the existing and potential capacities. China needs to
further modernize its foreign policy institutions and mechanisms so as
to change the ad hoc capacities to institutional ones. On the other
hand, China should proceed with its future capacity building, especially
on global governance, international system and order, civil society and
new science and technologies.
4.4. The fourth is publicities. Publicities here mean the following
three dimensions. Firstly, China needs to make its own house in good
order. Domestic strength is the basis of any country’s diplomacy. China
needs to maintain its economic dynamism and social vitalities. Secondly,
China needs to work harder and more effectively on the rights of
discourses. Chinese narratives should be more understandable to the
outside world and Chinese ways of thinking should be more accommodating
with the whole world. Last but not least, China needs to adapt itself
with the advancing of the times. Only holding the leadership in
economics, science and technologies, political thinking and strategic
leadership, can China succeed in garnering the global acceptance and
support for its diplomacy.